one paragraph each question

The discussion for Unit 3 reviews textbook material, and explores social changes in the 1820?s through the 1850?s, and explores the religious, legal and economic position of women through primary source documents. The discussion presumes both an understanding of the facts in the text and a comprehension and interpretation of the primary source documents. In some cases students will be asked to integrate historical facts with interpretation of the primary sources.Plan on visiting the Unit 3 Discussion Board several times to post responses, read responses, and reply to responses.To participate in the discussion, students should have read the textbook Chapters 8, 9, and 13. This discussion is worth 50 points.Reading Texts in Older EnglishThese reading sources were written in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Today’s society often relies on images, but during this period they took a lot of pleasure in words. Works written in this period are lengthy and ornate. The sentence structure is usually complex with long sentences including many clauses. The language used is elaborate with multiple adjectives and descriptions.Because many of the words used may be unfamiliar, use a dictionary and read these sources slowly to extract the meaning. Treat every clause like a sentence. Always look for the declarative statement that the author is trying to convey amidst his ornamentation. After becoming more accustomed to reading these texts, students can begin to relish the beauty of the language. Since written language was the only mode of distance communication, even people with very little formal education wrote very well.In addition, there is nothing like reading what real people said about the experiences described second hand in your textbook.Primary Source readingsREAD:Documents relating to Women for Discussion 3 (find reading selections at the bottom of this page)Post initial answers to three of these questions in the Discussion Board for “Unit 3 Discussion.” Also, post at least two responses to other student’s comments and reply to the follow-up question that your instructor poses to one of your initial posts. The initials should be two to three paragraphs and the replies one full paragraph. See the syllabus for additional details.”Initial answers” should specifically address the question(s) asked with reference to factual information or the primary sources. “Responses” should move the discussion forward with an alternate interpretation or add support with additional information. Responses should include references to textbook facts or primary sources.Questions addressing factual issues only are highlighted in bold print. Answer no more than ONE of the questions in bold print for credit. Questions dealing with primary source material are not highlighted in bold print. Answer two primary source questions, each dealing with a different source document. No credit will be given for a second answer to a question in bold print, or to a second answer dealing exclusively with the same primary source document already addressed. Do not respond to another student on a question that you have already answered.Open the question or answer to respond to it, click “Reply”, write an answer, and then click “Submit” to post a response. Please be sure to address all parts of the question in the answer. Responses to other student?s answers should add something significant to that student?s answer or indicate disagreement with some aspect of it.The following questions are also posted in the discussion board for “Unit 3 Discussion,” adhere to the discussion deadline as required by the Syllabus.Answer one bold print question below (questions 1-5) and two non-bolded questions on the documents. NOTE: since there are seven sources within the link and many require an evaluation of two documents, the two document questions answered should encompass a minimum of three different sources.In your opinion what were the long range causes of the subjection of women? Were economic, biological, or religious factors more significant? Justify your opinion.What were the traditional gender roles of this period? How did it reflect social and economic changes in the period? What did it mean for the lives of men, women and children?Using the information in the textbook, do you believe that traditional gender roles devalued the household duties of women? Why or why not? What economic and social facts from the period demonstrated that this principle did not accurately describe the lives of many women? Which women could not meet this ideal?How did movements such as public education, the Great Awakening, temperance, and abolition lead to a public life for some women? What motivated some women to use the public sphere as reformers?Give specific examples of women who publicly participated in reform movements. How did they get involved? What were their most important issues? How well was their work accepted by society as a whole?What are the purposes of the documents Woman as She Should Be and Pastoral Letter? How do the excerpts from Woman as She Should Be and Pastoral Letter explain, support, and justify traditional gender roles? Are the arguments compelling if you accept the premises?From an early 1800s perspective, how do you evaluate the powerful importance placed upon a well run household and harmonious family in Woman as She Should Be? In other words, is family life really as significant as Winslow Hubbard says it is? Explain.What would Hubbard and Pastors of the General Association of Massachusetts have thought of the Lowell factory girls? Why would they have condemned them or supported them? How would they have responded to the speech of Sojouner Truth?Using information from the reading by Harriet Robinson, do you believe that factory work at the Lowell Mills was an expansion of women?s rights or an exploitation of women? What effects did it have on the women who were employed?How does Angelina Grimké explain her evolution from anti-slavery activist to women?s rights advocate? What arguments does she use to defend the equality of women? Are her arguments persuasive? Explain.Why did the movement for women?s rights emerge from the abolition movement? What specific factors in the abolition movement moved women to consider their own position? Besides the Grimké sisters, discuss some other women who moved from anti-slavery to women?s rights.What religious arguments from scripture does Sarah Grimké use to support the ?original? equality of women? How does she explain their current inequality? How do you think that Winslow Hubbard would have refuted her arguments?Which ?legal disabilities of women? as listed in Sarah Grimké?s Letter XII: Legal Disabilities of Women and the Seneca Falls Declaration, or Harriet Hunt on the Right to Votedo you consider the most serious? Explain your choices. In your opinion, did the lack of legal rights for women during this period make women?s position resemble the lot of slaves? Why or why not?How did women such as the Grimké sisters or Harriet Hunt challenge social norms or accepted social behavior as demonstrated in Woman as She Should Be and Pastoral Letter? If you were a woman of the 1830?s or 1840?s would you have been inclined to challenge your role or accept it? Why? Base your answer on the textbook and documentsHow did Sojourner Truth further violate the social norms of the day? How might Sojourner Truth respond to Woman as She Should Be and Pastoral Letter? How relevant to her life was the idea of gender roles?? In your opinion, in terms of the attitudes of the day, was she a woman?For what purposes were the Legal Disabilities of Women, the Seneca Falls Declaration, and Harriet Hunt on the Right to Vote written? How do the purposes of each influence the content and structure of each? Why was the Seneca Falls Declaration written in the form of the Declaration of Independence, for example?Which ?injuries and usurpations? are more significant, those cited against George III in the Declaration of Independence or those in the Seneca Falls Declaration? Explain your answer. Why wasn’t there a women?s revolution as there had been an American Revolution? Or was there?

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Sources for Discussion 3
(Sources in the public domain)
Winslow Hubbard, Excerpts from Woman as She Should Be, 1843
The dignity and value of the female character cannot be too highly estimated or too sacredly
protected. It is often and perhaps justly remarked, that as woman was the first in transgression, so
she is the first in obedience; as she was first to introduce sin so she is the first to expel it. ? She
is capable of exerting a benign and almost irresistible dominion over the affections and conduct
of the other sex; but she can do it only by observing her appropriate sphere and putting forth her
characteristic graces?
It is my simple aim to expound and apply the lessons of the Bible upon the subject before
us??Let your women keep silence in the churches for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but
they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.? 1 Cor. xiii. 34. Here is it
declared to be according to the divine law that females should observe silence in the churches,
and act in subordination to the authority of man?.It is here asserted to be inconsistent with
female delicacy and modesty that they should speak in public. ?Thus the apostle implied in a
subsequent passage, as we shall show, and if she ought not to so much as ask a question in a
public meeting, but should even do that privately at home, much less ought she to undertake to
advance her own opinions, and to dictate instructions and rules to others?
The duty of wives to be subject to their husbands and to reverence them is inculcated in ?strong
language?she ought to have a covering or veil on her head, in sign that she is under the power
of her husband?and the apostle teaches us that here she must not only be in silence, but must
even have on the then customary badge of modesty and subjection?.Thus, if language has any
definite meaning, the Bible seems clearly to teach that man should always sit at the helm, to lead
public sentiment and control public movements; while woman was to move in another but not
less important or honorable sphere, where she was to put forth the peculiar and powerful
influences of per personal virtues and acquirements. ?
The appropriate sphere and distinguishing duties of woman are then as follows: Having given
herself up to God, her first duty is to take care of her own house?. Nor let any woman
pronounce this an invidious and menial sphere of duty. Let her but consider how much the
happiness of society and the progress of the world in all that is good depend upon domestic
causes. Let her also know in what admiration she is held buy those whose respect is most to be
valued, who, on entering her house, behold an abode of neatness, order, cheerfulness, and
hospitality, he children well clad and smiling, her table neatly spread with wholesome
provisions, and everything about her seeming to say, ?Here is my happiness; my husband is my
best companion, my children are my jewels, my house is my home, and no earthly pleasure
excels that of rendering it an earthly paradise?.
But oh how fallen from this high elevation is she when, impatient of her proper sphere she steps
forth to assume the duties of man, and, impelled by false zeal, with conscience misguided, does
as even a man ought not to do?when forsaking the domestic hearth, her delicate voice is heard
from house to house, or in social assemblies, rushing in harsh unnatural tones of denunciation
against civil laws and rules, against measures involving political and state affairs of which she is
nearly as ignorant as the child she left at home in the cradle?and withal very sure that the world
will never go right till women take the lead! What a sad wreck of female loveliness is she then!
She can hardly conceive of how ridiculous she appears in the eyes of all sober, discreet, judicious
Christian men, or how great a reproach she brings upon her sex. ?
But when females undertake to assume the place of public teachers, whether to both sexes or
only to their own; when they form societies for the purpose of sitting in judgments and acting
upon the affairs of church and state; when they travel about from place to place as lecturers,
teachers, and guides to public sentiment; when they assemble in conventions, pass resolutions,
make speeches, and vote upon civil, political, moral and religious matters?.it is then no longer a
question whether they have stretched themselves beyond their measure and violated the inspired
injunction which saith, ?let the woman learn in silence with all subjection, but I suffer not a
woman to teach, no to usurp authority over a man, but to be in silence.?
Pastoral Letter of the General Association of Massachusetts,
June 28, 1837
Brethren and Friends,
Having assembled to consult upon the interests of religion within this commonwealth, we would
now, as Pastors and Teachers, in accordance with the custom of this Association, address you on
some of the subjects which at the present time appear to us to have an important bearing upon the
cause of Christ. The first topic upon which we would speak, has respect to the perplexed and
agitating subjects which are now common amongst us.
III. We invite your attention to the dangers which at present seem to threaten the female
character with widespread and permanent injury.
The appropriate duties and influence of women, are clearly stated in the New Testament. Those
duties and that influence are unobtrusive and private, but the sources of mighty power. When the
mild, dependent, softening influence of woman upon the sternness of man’s opinions is fully
exercised, society feels the effects of it in a thousand forms. The power of woman is in her
dependence, flowing from the consciousness of that weakness which God has given her for her
protection and which keeps her in those departments of life that form the character of individuals
and of the nation. There are social influences which females use in promoting piety and the great
objects of christian benevolence, which we cannot too highly commend. We appreciate the
unostentatious prayers and efforts of woman, in advancing the cause of religion at home and
abroad:–in Sabbath schools, in leading religious inquirers to their pastor for instruction, and in
all such associated effort as becomes the modesty of her sex; and earnestly hope that she may
abound more and more in these labours of piety and love. But when she assumes the place and
tone of a man as a public reformer, our care and protection of her seem unnecessary, we put
ourselves in self defence against her, she yields the power which God has given her for
protection, and her character becomes unnatural. If the vine, whose strength and beauty is to lean
upon the trellis work and half conceal its clusters, thinks to assume the independence and the
overshadowing nature of the elm, it will not only cease to bear fruit, but fall in shame and
dishonour into the dust.
We cannot, therefore, but regret the mistaken conduct of those who encourage females to bear an
obtrusive and ostentatious part in measures of reform, and countenance any of that sex who so
far forget themselves as to itinerate in the character of public lecturers and teachers.
We especially deplore the intimate acquaintance and promiscuous conversation of females with
regard to things “which ought not to be named” [i.e., prostitution and other sexual irregularities];
by which that modesty and delicacy which is the charm of domestic life, and which constitute the
true influence of women in society are consumed, and the way opened, as we apprehend, for
degeneracy and ruin. We say these things, not to discourage proper influences against sin, but to
secure such reformation as we believe is scriptural and will be permanent.
ANGELINA GRIMKE, Grimke Public Letter to Catharine Beecher, August 2, 1837
Published in The Liberator, her letters appeared in book form in 1838.
Since I engaged in the investigation of the rights of the slave, I have nec¬essarily been led to a
better understanding of my own; for I have found the Anti-Slavery cause to be the high school of
morals in our land – the school in which human rights are more fully investigated, and better
understood and taught, than in any other benevolent enterprise. Here one great fundamental
principle is disinterred, which, as soon as it is uplifted to public view, leads the mind into a
thousand different ramifi¬cations, into which the rays of this central light are streaming with
brightness and glory. Here we are led to examine why human beings have any rights. It is
because they are moral beings; the rights of all men, from the king to the slave, are built upon
their moral nature: and as all men have this moral nature, so all men have essentially the same
rights. These rights may be plundered from the slave, but they cannot be alienated: his right and
title to himself is as perfect now, as is that of Lyman Beecher: they are written in his moral
being, and must remain unimpaired as long as that being continues. Now it naturally occurred to
me, that if rights were founded in moral being, then the circumstance of sex could not give to
man higher rights and responsibilities, than to woman. To suppose that it did, would be to deny
the self-evident truth, “that the physical constitution is the mere instrument of the moral nature.”
To suppose that it did, would be to break up utterly the relations of the two natures, and to
reverse their functions, exalting the animal na¬ture into a monarch, and humbling the moral into
a slave; “making the former a proprietor, and the latter its property.” When I look at human
beings as moral beings, all distinction in sex sinks to insignificance and nothingness; for I
believe it regulates rights and responsibilities no more than the color of the skin or the eyes. My
doctrine then is, that whatever it is morally right for man to do, it is morally right for woman to
do. Our duties are governed, not by difference of sex, but by the diversity of our relative
connections in life, and the variety of gifts and talents committed to our care, and- the different
eras in which we live?.
Excerpt from Sarah Grimke’s Letter 1: The Original Equality of Woman July 11, 1837
We must first view woman at the period of her creation. “And God said, Let us make man in our
own image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and the fowl
of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing, in the image
of God created he him, male and female created he them.” In all this sublime description of the
creation of man, (which is a difference intimated as existing between them. They were both
made in the image of God; dominion was given to both over every other creature, but not over
each other. Created in perfect equality, they were expected to exercise the viceregency intrusted
to them by their Maker, in harmony and love.
Let us pass on now to the recapitulation of the creation of man: – “The Lord god formed man of
the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living
soul. And the Lord God said, it is not good that man should be alone, I will make him an help
meet for him.” All creation swarmed with animated beings capable of natural affection, as we
know they still are; it was not, therefore, merely to give man a creature susceptible of loving,
obeying, and looking up to him, for all that the animals could do and did do. It was to give him a
companion, in all respects his equal; one who was like himself a free agent, gifted with intellect
and endowed with immortality; not a partaker merely of his animal gratifications, but able to
enter into all his feelings as a moral and responsible being. If this had not been the case, how
could she have been a help meet for him? I understand this as applying not only to the parties
entering into the marriage contract, but to all men and women, because I believe God designed
woman to be a help meet for man in every good and perfect work. She was part of himself, as if
Jehovah designed to make the oneness and identity of man and woman perfect and complete; and
when the glorious work of their creation was finished, “the morning stars sang together, and all
the sons of God shouted for joy.”
This blissful condition was not long enjoyed by our first parents. Eve, it would seem from
history, was wandering alone amid the bowers of Paradise, when the serpent met with her. From
her reply to Satan, it is evident that the command not to eat “of the tree that is in the midst of the
garden,” was given to both, although the term man was used when the prohibition was issued by
God. “And the woman said unto the serpent, we may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden,
but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of
it, neither shall Ye touch it, lest Ye die.” Here the woman was exposed to temptation from a
being with whom she was unacquainted. She had been accustomed to associate with her beloved
partner, and to hold communion with God and with angels; but of satanic intelligence, she was in
all probability entirely ignorant. Through the subtlety of the serpent, she was beguiled. And
“when she was that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to
be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof and did eat.”
We next find Adam involved in the same sin, not through the instrumentality of a super-natural
agent, but through that of his equal, a being whom he must have known was liable to transgress
the divine command, because he must have felt that he was himself a free agent, and that he was
restrained from disobedience only by the exercise of faith and love towards his Creator. Had
Adam tenderly reproved his wife, and endeavored to lead her to repentance instead of sharing in
her guilt, I should be much more ready to accord to man that superiority which he claims; but as
the facts stand disclosed by the sacred historian, it appears to men that to say the least, there was
as much weakness exhibited by Adam as by Eve. They both fell from innocence, and
consequently from happiness, but not from equality.
Let us next examine the conduct of this fallen pair, when Jehovah interrogated them respecting
their fault. They both frankly confessed their guilt. “The man said, the woman who thou gavest
to be with me, she gave me of the tree and I did eat. And the woman said, the serpent beguiled
men and I did eat.” And the Lord God said unto the woman, “Thou wilt be subject unto they
husband, and he will rule over thee.” That this did not allude to the subjection of woman to man
is manifest, because the same mode of expression is used in speaking to Cain of Abel. The truth
is that the curse, as it is termed, which was pronounced by Jehovah upon woman, is a simple
prophecy. The Hebrew, like the French language, uses the same word to express shall and will.
Our translators having been accustomed to exercise their lordship over their wives, and seeing
only through the medium of a perverted judgment, very naturally, though I think not very
learnedly or very kindly, translated it shall instead of will, and thus converted a prediction to Eve
into a command to Adam; for observe, it is addressed to the woman and not to the man. the
consequence of the fall was an immediate struggle for dominion, and Jehovah foretold which
would gain the ascendancy; but as he created them in his image, as that image manifestly was not
lost by the fall, because it is urged in Gen 9:6, as an argument why the life of man should not be
taken by his fellow man, there is no reason to suppose that sin produced any distinction between
them as moral, intellectual, and responsible beings
Sarah M. Grimké, Letter XII: Legal Disabilities of Women, Concord, 9th Mo., 6th, 1837
My Dear Sister,
There are few things which present greater obstacles to the improvement and elevation of woman
to her appropriate sphere of usefulness and duty, than the laws which have been enacted to
destroy her independence, and crush her individuality; laws which, although they are framed for
her government, she has had no voice in establishing, and which rob her of some of her essential
rights. Woman has no political existence. With the single exception of presenting a petition to
the legislative body, she is a cipher in the nation; or, if not actually so in representative
governments, she is only counted, like the slaves of the South, to swell the numbers of lawmakers who form decrees for her government, with little reference to her benefit, except so far as
her good may promote their own. I am not sufficiently acquainted with the laws respecting
women on the continent of Europe, to say anything about them. But Prof. Follen, in his essay on
“The Cause of Freedom in our Country,” says, “Woman, though fully possessed of that rational
and moral nature which is the foundation of all rights, enjoys amongst us fewer legal rights than
under the civil law of continental Europe.” I shall confine myself to the laws of our country.
These laws bear with peculiar rigor on married women. Blackstone, in the chapter entitled “Of
husband and wife,” says: —
By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in law; that is, the very being, or legal
existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and
consolidated into that of the husband under whose wing, protection and cover she performs
everything. For this reason, a man cannot grant anything to his wife, or enter into covenant with
her; for the grant would be to suppose her separate existence, and to covenant with her would be
to covenant with himself; and therefore it is also generally true, that all compacts made between
husband and wife when single, are voided by the intermarriage. A woman indeed may be
attorney for her husband, but that implies no separation from, but is rather a representation of,
her love.
Here now, the very being of a woman, like that of a slave, is absorbed in her master. All
contracts made with her, like those made with slaves by their owners, are a mere nullity. Our
kind defenders have legislated away almost all our legal rights, and in the true spirit of such
injustice and oppressions, have kept us in ignorance of those very laws by which we are
governed. They have persuaded us, that we have no rights to investigate the laws, and that, if we
did, we could not comprehend them; they alone are capable of understanding the mysteries of
Blackstone, &c. But they are not backward to make us feel the practical operation of their power
over our actions.
The husband is bound to provide his wife with necessaries by law, as much as himself; and if she
contracts debts for them, he is obligated to pay for them; but for anything besides necessaries, he
is not chargeable.
Yet a man may spend the property he has acquired by marriage at the ale-house, the gambling
table, or in any other way that he pleases. Many instances of this kind have come to my
knowledge; and women, who have brought their husbands handsome fortunes, have been left, in
consequence of the wasteful and dissolute habits of their husbands, in straitened circumstances,
and compelled to toil for the support of their families.
If the wife be indebted before marriage, the husband is bound afterwards to pay the debt; for he
has adopted her and her circumstances together.
The wife’s property is, I believe, equally liable for her husband’s debts contracted before
If the wife injured in her person or property, she can bring no action for redress without her
husband’s concurrence, and his name as well as her own: neither can she be sued, without
making her husband a defendant.
This law that “a wife can being no action,” &c., is similar to the law respecting slaves. “A slave
cannot …
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