Pan troglodytes Chimpanzee

MY SPECIES: Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee)I have four files attached:-( Case study rubric) is just the rubric -(power point studypool) is information about how to write a case study -(Case Study-Zoo Enclosure Design) is the question of this task-(wrong project 3) is the paper i have ‘the answer’ but it is completely wrong + it is in MLA i want it JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY. rewrite this case study please. you can use information from this paper but in the correct format please


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BIOL/EVPP 377: Applied Ecology
Scientific papers must contain facts.
Every fact included in your paper must be in your own
words. If you do not know the meaning of a word, use
another one.
Every fact in your paper must be cited. Use Journal of
Ecology style in Zotero. All other styles are unacceptable
for this
It is very important to write in the third person. Leave out
all references to “you”, “we”, “they”, “their” or “I” unless
you are actually the person that conducted the research.
Some things to avoid:
1. You do not have to try to impress people by using
words most people have never heard. Many
published articles are like this, and they are poor
papers on account of it.
2. Do not use colloquial speech, slang, or “childish”
words or phrases.
1. Your
papers will include no less than 3 reputable
JOURNAL sources.
2. You must cite your references in proper form.
? Using Zotero you need the Journal of
Ecology format.
3. You
must use proper English language.
Punctuation, spelling and grammar errors will
lower your final grade.
Be sure you use scientific names correctly. And be
sure to USE them. Example:
Trichechus (capital; italics) manatus (small; italics)
When referring to an animal by the scientific name:
The manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)……
Do this ONE time and then refer to the animal by the common name.
Spell out an abbreviation the first time you use it.
The manatee was 2.5 meters (m) in length.
Start sentences with words not numbers or dates.
4 manatees were seen along the coast.
Four manatees were seen along the coast.
If you copy and paste from a paper and then
add a citation to the end of that sentence,
You MUST change EVERYTHING into your own
words and THEN cite the end of your new and
completely different sentence.
You MUST use a title page for your research
Choose a title that tells all about your subject.
You MUST put a picture on your Endangered
Species research paper.
Put your name on the page, MINE is NOT
important, I did not write your paper.
Introduce the main points of the topic.
It is nice to allude to things you will cover.
Also give a succinct description of your topic,
defining any terms that may be required later.
Format is everything here.
Use Zotero. The program will fix everything
and make it completely correct.
You should use the program Zotero to create
your Literature Cited section.
Case Study: Zoo Enclosure Design
MY SPECIES: Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee)
Focus Concept
Architects designing zoo enclosures have three main groups to think about. Designers must keep
the animals, the keepers and the public in mind. Animals must be kept in a humane state in
which keepers can care for them and the public can easily view them.
When designing enclosures, there are several questions that can be asked in order to facilitate the
health and wellbeing of animals, keepers and the public. Keep in mind that the public is not
always smart about their interaction with animals in zoos. As you write this design for your new
zoo enclosure, be sure to answer all the following questions for your animal of choice. The
points below should be covered in a coherent manner in a correctly written Introduction (1.5
I. Animals (1 page minimum)
1. Include some background biological information in the animal.
a. How big are the animals?
b. Are they group-living or solitary?
c. Are they sedentary animals or very active?
d. What wild habitat do they come from? Think about temperature and humidity.
e. Do they climb, or hide under ground? Do they need a flat area or 3D structures? If
they climb, is mesh or bars better for them as a barrier, rather than glass, a moat,
or another structure?
f. How far do they like to be able to see?
g. Is the enclosure interesting – do the animals need toys to play with?
h. Are they nocturnal, crepuscular, or diurnal?
i. Can you mix them with other animals?
j. Do the animals need privacy, perhaps separate dens off public show?
k. How big an area does the animal need?
II. Keepers (0.25 page)
1. Need to feed the animals the correct food and provide them with fresh water without
the animals escaping, usually without going into the enclosure with the animals.
2. Some animals are dangerous and keepers never go in with them, others allow varying
degrees of interaction with keeping staff.
3. Enclosures must be easy to keep clean to minimize chances of disease.
4. Animals may need to be isolated for moving to other collections or for veterinary
purposes, sometimes from a distance with an anesthetic dart or sometimes whilst still
unsedated. An example is the tunnels of the monkey enclosures, a section of which
can be stopped by dropping doors at either end so that the monkey can be isolated and
moved without ever being manhandled or sedated.
III. Public (0.25 page)
1. Most of the animals must be visible.
2. The public often likes to see naturalistic enclosures
3. Should the animals be visible all the time?
4. Perception of freedom – do the public like the use of islands, moats (water or dry),
bars, wire mesh, glass, to separate them from the animals?
5. Information for the visitors about the animals, their habitats, etc – where is the
information to be placed?
Enclosure Design and Cost (1.5 pages)
Decide what building material would be best for your enclosure. Does it have to be on-toxic,
withstand wear and tear and easy to clean? Perhaps your enclosure needs to be strong and safe
enough to keep in very powerful and dangerous animals. Does the ecological soundness of
material make a difference to you? Or is that not a consideration that can be considered with all
of the other things you need for your animal?
Are your animals likely to need toys? Be sure they have stimulation in order to keep them from
chewing through the bars of the enclosure.
How are you planning to have the animal eat?
1. scatter feeding to encourage foraging
2. feeding at unpredictable times of day, or even unpredictable days
3. feeding in novel ways
4. making the animals work for their food
5. some other method of feeding
Are you planning on allowing your animals out in the Zoo grounds, to interact with the public or
even give rides?
Zoos are not made of money and all enclosures should be compromised by the space available
and the cost of the whole budget. In this case, you are allotted $20,000 to design your enclosure.
Be sure to provide a budget for your enclosure design.
– You have to cite the products from the website or the place. For example, Qiagen DNeasy Blood and
Tissue Kit (Qiagen #XXX, Darnstown, MD)
Conclusion (200 words)
Sum all of the information up into a short (200 words, one paragraph) statement that could be
sent to a zoo official or a government agency.
Literature Cited (Separate page in Journal of Ecology style)
You MUST cite any information you find. You MAY NOT use any websites. You MUST use
either scientific papers from a journal or a book. Be SURE you are using reliable sources and
citing as you were taught at the beginning of the course.
please make sure it is all in Journal of Ecology format
Name: _______________________________________________ G Number: ___________
Case Study Rubric
Format of Literature Cited
Journal of Ecology style, bold
“Literature Cited” heading
Single Spaced, one space between
entries, alphabetical
Correct indentation and margins
Scientific names in correct format
Case Study Answers
Includes 3 peer reviewed journal
article citations in correct format
Does not contain extraneous
information. No fluff.
Scientific names in the correct
format and used only once in the
Has more than one paragraph and
is written in the scientific style
with short, concise sentences.
DOUBLE spaced.
Grammar and Format
Times New Roman, 12 pt font
Correct margins (1 inch)
Correct grammar
Correct spelling
Correct scientific name format
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Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Chimpanzee Enclosure
To keep animals in a zoo one requires to know more about the animal before one
embarks on the process of designing an enclosure for the animal. In this case, the planning is
for the design of an enclosure for chimpanzee. Before it is decided if the enclosure will be for
a single animal, or many animals, it is necessary to understand the animal in the natural
habitat, and the degree of socialization. While designing the enclosures, it is also important to
consider the public who will visit the zoo to observe the animals, and the keepers who will
take care of the chimpanzees.
The Animals (Chimpanzees)
Chimpanzees are primates like humans. The Pan troglodyte is the scientific name for
the chimpanzees. There are sub species of chimpanzees are four namely the Western, Eastern,
Nigerian-Cameroon, and Central subspecies. All these go by the scientific names P. t. verus,
P. t. schweinfurthii, P. t. ellioti, and P. t. troglodyte respectively. Chimpanzees’ natural
habitats are the African rainforests, and the Savanna grasslands still in Africa. These natural
habitats have varying climatic conditions with the rainforests being hot, and wet, and the
Savanna grasslands having warm, and dry climatic conditions (Gunther). The most common
feature of these habitats is the high humidity. The chimpanzees are spread across different
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countries of West, Central Africa, and parts of East Africa. These countries include Nigeria,
Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Tanzania, Central African Republic (CAR), Guinea,
Equatorial Guinea, Senegal, and many other countries. The list goes up to twenty-one
countries. The animals are on the verge of extinction as they are faced with a lot of threats
starting with the shrinking natural habitats due to agricultural activities, game hunting, and
invasive research that leads to their exportation to Americas, and Europe. It is estimated that
the remaining population in Africa is about 250000 chimpanzees who are still under threat by
human activities (Barber).
Physically chimpanzees are not big animals. Mature chimps grow up to four feet tall
with males (between 90-120 pounds) weighing more than females (about 115 pounds). At
birth, chimpanzees weigh approximately between two to four pounds. They walk on all fours
but can also walk on twos when both hands are occupied. Chimpanzees are omnivorous,
meaning they feed on vegetation, fruits, and nuts, as well as termites, insects, and other
animals like birds. Chimpanzees have longer arms than legs to help in stretching out while
collecting fruits atop trees. These long arms are also helpful when they move from tree-totree. Physically they appear to be brown to black in color with areas around their ears, face,
under the legs, and palm appearing to be lightly colored because those areas are not covered
in fur (Gunther).
Chimpanzees are social animals, and they live in communities. The communities
consist of families with both males, and females. Male chimpanzees stay in one particular
group their whole lifetime. Females move from their original groups to other groups when
they are mature enough, and they reproduce averagely at the age of six. All groups have
dominant males. The small chimpanzees stay with their mothers for an average of ten years.
Averagely chimpanzee groups consist of about twenty chimpanzees at any given time. This is
almost six families per community of chimpanzees which are also close to a bigger group that
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total to about eighty chimpanzees. Such a large group is called a troop. These animals have a
long lifespan of about fifty years. The animals depict a diurnal lifestyle but are often active
during moonlit days showing some kind of twilight behavior too. They are active animals
with young ones always moving around on top of trees, and can walk a kilometer on the
ground. They are also active climbers. Chimpanzees are territorial, and it may not be
advisable to mix them with other animals in the zoo enclosures. It may be advisable to also
add perches in their enclosures, and provide some private spots where they can rest during the
day. The enclosures should be sizeable to accommodate a good number but not too many. An
enclosure for two families or three can be good enough. The best barrier for chimpanzees is a
mesh so as to control their access to the public for the safety of both. Provide them with warm
temperatures if temperatures in zoo drop below 10 degrees centigrade, and humidity of
between thirty to seventy percent. A mix of flat areas, and three-D objects in the enclosure
would do for the chimpanzees’ activities (Barber).
In the zoo, keepers of all the animals should be highly trained to handle the animals
they take care of. For example, the chimpanzee keepers should be well trained to handle these
animals. The top priority the handlers should consider is the health of the animals, the
animals’ social development, and psychological well-being. Top of the list is the safety of the
animals, the keepers, and the public who come to view the animals in their ‘natural’ habitat.
The enclosure for chimpanzees should be designed to allow for feeding to be done without the
keepers getting into the enclosures. The feeders can be placed where it is easy to access, and
each animal should have a feeder which should be located in such a way that they cannot sit
on with feeding time being regulated through the day. The water moats need to be cleaned
regularly to avoid disease infection. They should not be deep that the chimpanzees can drown
inside. The animals are not good swimmers. The floor of the enclosures should be made of
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absorbent materials so that it does not become dump, and harbor odor. The keepers should
ensure that the animals are safe, and in a good state of health. In case of health issues, they
should be prepared for movement to be treated (Barber).
The public goes to zoos to view animals of different kind chimpanzees being one of
them. The presentation of the names, and characteristics of these animals should be placed
just before the visitors see the animals so that when watching the animals, they can relate to
whatever they have read about the animals. The enclosures should not look like confinement
facilities for the animals but just a way of keeping them safe. The enclosures should look
almost like the natural habitats of the animals. The kind of materials used for the creation of
the barrier between the animals, and the chimpanzees should not block views but should be
strong enough to keep the public at a safe distance. The watering moats, and other features
should also look as naturalistic as possible to give the public the wilderness feel (Barber).
Enclosure Design, and Cost
Designing the enclosures for all animals in the zoo is not a matter of personal
discretion but is tied to space, and budget constraints. Therefore, a lot of consideration should
be taken for the type of materials to be used, the available space allocated for the
chimpanzees, safety of both the animals, and human beings, and the social wellbeing of the
animals. With a tight budget of twenty thousand US dollars, the enclosure should be designed
with cost-effective yet lasting materials. The cost of doing the enclosure would take
considerations of the most important inputs then go down to the least important parts. The
physical enclosure materials would carry most of the budget whether the strength is strong, or
weak. This will still depend on the size of the enclosure too. The landscaping of the area
would also cost a good amount plus the air conditioning for the enclosure area for
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temperature, and humidity regulation during winter, or anytime the temperature goes below
ten degrees centigrade. The lighting of the area of the enclosure will also be taken into
consideration when designing. This can be done either by installing lights in the area, and
varying the brightness during the day, and night, or by installing roofs that allow daylight, and
the night sky to be visible for the animals in case of an indoor enclosure. The specifics of the
enclosure budget would be as follows: enclosure fencing material, and floor material to take
8000 US dollars; landscaping, and design of chimpanzee perches, moats, and feeding places
to cost $2000, this is considering there will be tree planting to be carried out, and growing
some bushes, placing rocks here, and there; an $8000 budget would go to lighting, and air
conditioning of the enclosure, the air-conditioning can either be a mix of mechanical for
summer, and electronic for winter, and lighting can be a mix of both because winter is usually
dark, and might require artificial lighting so as to keep the enclosure looking as natural as
possible. This budget is for an enclosure for six chimpanzees each with space allocation of 2.8
cubic meters for exhibition totaling 16.8 cubic meters with an additional private area for
resting of at least twelve cubic meters. The $2000 that is unused is left for upgrades, and
additional design as time goes by (Barber).
To move an animal from the natural habitat to house it in artificial confines is not an
easy task. A lot of considerations need to be taken to ensure that the animal does not suffer
due to the changes since creating an artificial habitat exactly same as the natural habitat can
be an uphill task. Therefore, in the design of a chimpanzee enclosure, the activity is not
complete even after the animals are placed inside the enclosures. There are behavioral
changes per individual animals that may prompt design changes time, and again. This means
that the activity is subject to constant evaluation. For example, the fact that chimpanzees are
great escape artists, they can find new escape routes that were not foreseen which need to be
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blocked by redesigning some parts. Medical cases might arise, and it is important to design
with these in mind too, that’s why the design should have ways of controlling access when the
keepers want to access one, or more animals without getting harmed by the rest. No type of
design is perfect but when all the basics for holding the animals are incorporated in the design
in a way that the social, health, and psychological wellness of the animals are considered in a
manner that makes the stay in the zoo seem like the natural habitat then the design is good.
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Works Cited
Barber, Joseph C.E. “Chimanzee (Pan troglodytes) Care Manual.” 08 December 2009.
Association of Zoos, and Aquariums. 05 December
Gunther, Michael. Great Apes: Chimpanzees. 15 May 2017. 05
December 2017.

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