paraphrase the attached assignments (process control and instrumentation)

Attached two different assignments with there Question paper and guid line :1- check if both of assignment attempted the questions requirement .2-make correction if there is any mistake.3-paraphrase each task the two assignment.4-change the diagrams into another ones has the same principle.5-make it 0% plagiarism.


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Table of Contents
Structure of Report …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
Details of the industry visited:…………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
The Process & Instrumentation Diagram of the Process Chosen: …………………………… 3
? The Main Feed and Product Streams, Pumps, Valves, Equipment’s and Signals in
the Chosen Control Loop: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Description of the principle behind the manipulated and controlled variable: ……….. 6
Explanation of the control system configuration:……………………………………………………… 7
? Explanation one type of sensor used in the process and explanation the
instrumentation principle of the sensor: …………………………………………………………………………… 7
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Structure of Report
? Details of the industry visited:
Orpic is one of Oman’s largest and most rapidly
growing businesses in the Middle East oil industry.
Orpic’s refineries in Sohar and Muscat, as well as
the aromatics and polypropylene production plants
in Sohar, provide fuel, chemicals, plastics and
other petroleum products, to Oman and the world.
Orpic currently operates in four plants, split between two locations, in Muscat (Mina Al Fahal
Refinery), in Sohar port industrial complex (Sohar Refinery, Polypropylene Plant, Aromatics
The majority of their production is in the form of fuels, of which
they can produce up to 222,000 barrels per day. In addition, the
fuel – gasoline, kerosene (jet fuel) and diesel- are marketed by
the three major local marketing companies in Oman (Oman oil
marketing, Shell and Al Maha). A further three companies lift
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with road tankers for local
bottling and distribution for domestic use.
Moreover, after supplying the Sultanate with the sufficient fuel through local marketers, the
remainder is sold internationally through Oman Trading International (OTI), Oman`s international
oils and petrochemicals marketing company.
? The Process & Instrumentation Diagram of the Process Chosen:
Process &Instrumentation Diagram of the petroleum refining process.
? Process Objective :– To distill and separate valuable distillates (naphtha, kerosene, heavy gas oil, light gas oil,
gasoline, diesel) and atmospheric gas oil (AGO) from the crude oil.
? Main Process Technique :– Complex distillation
? Main equipment’s of this process :-
CW- Cooling water
D- Drum
MU- Makeup
C- Column
FW- Feed water
CT- Cooling tower
SE- Sewer
TK- Tank
RX- Reactor
F- Furnace
UT- Utilities
EX- Exchanger
CA- Chemical addition
P- Pump
IA- Instrument air
V- Valve
? The Main Feed and Product Streams, Pumps, Valves, Equipment’s and Signals in the
Chosen Control Loop:
? The Feed.
– The main feed enters to the furnace is contain a crude oil and water
with measured pressure.
? Product streams.
– Product streams which leaves from the furnace is the hot mixture of
crude oil and water with less viscosity.
? Pumps.
– The centrifugal pump is available in the control loop, it’s used to
inject the feed to furnace.
? Valves.
– Two control valves (pneumatic) is placed in this control loop before
and after the furnace, its used to control pressure and flow in the pipes
from and to the furnace.
? Equipment’s.
– The main and only equipment in this loop is the furnace which is
heating the feed for reduce the high viscosity and to prepare it before
send it to the column.
? Signals.
– There are two types of signals available in the chosen control loop, which are:
Mechanical Signal
Pneumatic Signal
? Description of the principle behind the manipulated and controlled variable:
? In this loop heating up the temperature is the Process. So
temperature is the Controlled Variable and the output of the
process. In addition, the desired value of temperature is called
the Set Point.
Moreover, Temperature is here also an Input Variable, since it is
measured by using any type of temperature indicator to know
the current value of temperature, and determining when and to
what extent to influence by the temperature controller. After determining the desired
temperature, the controller will send pneumatic signal to the control valve to allow the output
? The factor that is changed to keep the measured variable
at set point is called the manipulated variable. Here the
manipulated variable is the flow, because the variability in
flow can effect in heating of the feed inside the furnace, so
the desired temperature or set point will be effected.
Furthermore, the flow to the furnace must be measured
and must be controlled by flow controller.
? Explanation of the control system configuration:
The control system configuration is a general term that encompasses several types of control
systems and associated instrumentation used in industrial production, including supervisory
control and data acquisition systems, distributed control systems, and other smaller control
system configurations such as cascade control, single variable, independent single variable, and
interactive single variable, compound variable and multivariable.
The control system configuration behind this small
system (furnace) is Interactive Single variable, there are
two loops Interact, the first is loop with temperature as
controlled variable, and other variable in another loop is
flow as manipulated variable. According to that, before
feed is flow through the furnace the flow most be
controlled, because the change in flow set point disturbs
temperature system and effected in the controlled
variable. Moreover, the main loop is adjusting the
temperature inside the furnace before allowing the steam
flow to second step of the petroleum refining process.
? Explanation one type of sensor used in the process and explanation the
instrumentation principle of the sensor:
A temperature sensor plays an important role in many applications. Temperature sensing is one
of the most sensitive properties or parameters for industries like petrochemical, automotive, and
aerospace and defense, consumer electronics, and so on. These sensors are installed into
devices with the purpose of measuring the temperature of a medium accurately and efficiently.
The vast majority of temperature measurements in oil refineries are for either process monitoring
or for safety applications. There are four commonly used temperature sensor types: – Negative
Temperature Coefficient (NTC), Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD), Thermocouple,
Semiconductor-based sensors.
Thermocouples are often used for their excellent
temperature response and in locations that need a
more durable sensor like in this loop (in furnace). A
thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two
different conductors forming electrical junctions at
differing temperatures. A thermocouple produces a
temperature-dependent voltage as a result of the
thermoelectric effect, and this voltage can be interpreted to measure temperature. In addition, the
thermocouple sensor used in this loop as temperature detector to detect the temperature of the
mixture inside the furnace and send that reading to the temperature transmitter (TT) which
converts a reading from a sensor into a standard signal and transmits that signal to the
temperature controller (TC), then from the controller to the output device which is control valve.
Instrumentation principle of the thermocouple sensor is when two dissimilar metals are joined
together to form two junctions, Electromagnetic fields are
generated within the circuit due to the different temperatures of
the two junctions of the circuit. It comprises of at least two
metals joined together to form two junctions. One of this
junction is connected to the body whose temperature is to be
measured and it is a measuring junction. The other junction of
this device is made in contact with body of known temperature.
Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of thermocouple include:
High accuracy
Non linear
Low voltage
Large temperature range (-180 to 2,320 °C)
Require reference
Less stable
Fast response time
I visited Orpic Company in Sohar (Sohar port industrial complex) exactly I visited the Sohar
Refinery, I saw how to they doing the refining for crude oil and the process which they are used.
During the explanation from technical staff about petroleum refining I got an idea about refining
crude oil and how they product different kinds of oil in one long process like gasoline, diesel,
kerosene and others. In addition, the process &instrumentation diagram of the petroleum refining
process has been studied, then I selected control loop which is the furnace and the reason behind
selecting this loop is I saw the major instrumentations is available in that control loop. Moreover,
I got knowledge about manipulated and controlled variable, control system configuration and
instrumentation principle of the Thermocouple sensor.
Gary, J. (2000). Petroleum Refining Processes. [Online]. Available [Accessed on 25/11/16].
Marwen, F. (2010). Fixed Sheath Thermocouple Assemblies with General Purpose
Connection Heads. [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed on 25/11/16].
Mohammed, H. (2013). Orpics Business and Products. [Online]. Available from:
from: [Accessed on 20/11/16].
Odendaal, D. (2015). Process Instruments for Reliable Measurements (Oil & Gas). [Online].
Available from: [Accessed on 20/11/16].
Philip, M. (2006). Process Control Fundamentals. [Online]. Available [Accessed on 23/11/16].
Ronald, F. (2009). Process Control Fundamentals. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed on
10 | P a g e
Process and Instrumentation Diagrams in process industries
(Cement company in Sultanate of Oman)
PID of cement plan and Discussion
a) Preface:
The industrial revolution has brought significant change in the lifestyles and social well-being of the people
in the global scenario. There is a great increase in the number of industries established through- out the
world. The technology employed for industry operations has also grown several times. With growth in
technology, there were several tools developed for better usage of engineering applications and
management. Process and instrumentation diagram is one of the major engineering tools that facilitated
better engineering operations. The current discussion is a process and instrumentation diagram of an
Omani company, Raysut Cement Company. The company is located in Salalah, Oman. Raysut Cement
company is established in 1981 as per the Royal Decree of 7/81. The company was officially inaugurated
in 1985. By 2011, Raysut cement company established itself as the leader in the cement production in the
region and also expanded its operations to Al Khaimah of UAE. The group has about 4.7 MTS of cement
production capacity at present.
Overview of the total plant:
Ordinary Portland cement, more commonly known as OPC is the type of cement being manufactured in the
company. The company does intake limestone from the quarry and the process follows to produce the
cement. At the end of the process, after grinding, cement will get dispatched to the bagging and packaging
sector where it will get bagged and supplied to the consumers. The overview of the total process is shown
in the following figure,
PID of cement plan and Discussion
b) The process flow diagram of Raysut Cement company of Oman
A brief overview of the Raysut cement making process: The cement manufacturing do start from the
collection of the limestone from the quarries. Once the limestone is obtained from the quarries it is actually
crushed in the crusher and then based on the grain size will be subjected to the classification before passing
to the homogenization silo. The cement will be subjected to the prehomizinization and will be sent to the
Raw mill and there after will be moved to the homogenization silo. After passing through the homogenization
silo, the material will be subjected to the dust separation and subsequently will be moved to the Rotary Kiln.
Before passing the raw meal to the rotary kiln, it will be thoroughly subjected to the preheating process.
After passing through in the rotary kiln, the raw mill will be ground and passed to the cement mills. Milling
of the raw meal generally happens continuously from the clinker silos which stores the clinker output
received from the rotary kilns. The powdered product obtained from the cement mills will be moved to the
silos from where the material will be packaged and dispatched to the baggage sites. The bagged cement
will be subjected to the transport to the retail dealers through several transport means.
PID of cement plan and Discussion
PID of kiln section of the cement plant
The diagram above indicating the PID of the overall plant with particularly highlighting of the rotary kiln
along with the draught systems. There are draught channels of primary and secondary air channels
indicated in the diagram. Also indicated are the instruments of induced fan, Induced fan damper, preheater
along with flow funnels, material transport and handling means, Rotary kiln along with the primary air fan,
cooler and cooler air fans. Also shown in the diagram are the centrifugal pumps.
PID of cement plan and Discussion
c) The equipment indicated in the process flow diagram and their brief functionality:
The rotary kiln shown in the diagram is one of the key element in the overall cement manufacturing process.
The kiln plays a key role in pyro-processing of the raw material for making Portland cement. During the
process, the calcium carbonate of the raw material will react with the silica-bearing minerals to form a
mixture of calcium silicate. Generally, the efficiency of the kiln is considered to be one of the main factors
that affect the performance of the cement manufacturing plant.
Induced draft fan employed is meant for the provision to supply the necessary air for combustion of the fuel
in the kiln of the plant. Generally, the induced fan is considered as the lung of the clinker burning system of
the plant. If there is no ID fan in the system
there will not be any combustion of the fuel possible in the
plant. Generally, the fans used for the induced fan systems are radial, forward and curved. Generally they
will be either forward curved or backward curved.
Cooler fans are employed to cool the clinker from about 1500 degree Celsius temperature to 100-degree
celicius. In the current RCC there are 4 such cooler fans employed for cooling the clinker in the plant. The
main intention of the plant is to protect the equipment, facilities and other material in the vicinity and to
quench the clinker to ensure that the important minerals do stay still within that. Cooler fans not only
contribute the cooling the clinker material but will also ensure that the quality of the clinker is currently
maintained. If the cooler fans are not working properly the power consumption will not be proper as well
they may even damage the conveyor system in the plant.
Preheater is employed to the raw material in the intake flow path to the rotary kiln. The heat from the flue
and the exhaust gases will be employed to heat the intake material entering into the rotary kiln.
ID fan damper indicated in the inlet flow path to the ID fan do contain a damper which in turn will control the
air entering into the ID fan. The damper mechanism can be employed either to increase or decrease the
air entering into the ID fan systems.
The cooler indicated in the PID diagram is essentially meant for cooling the clinker coming out from the kiln,
they are essentially prepared with a particular system to cool the clinker and to send the same to the clinker
silos for storage requirements.
Primary air fans are employed to move large quantities of the pulverized coal into the kiln along with air
sufficient and required for heating the coal in the kiln.
Also, present in the PID are the material handling units or transmission units for moving the raw meal as
well for moving coal into the plant unit.
Control loop in the kiln section – The control loop in the kiln section is meant for the controlling the right
quantity of air intake into the kiln. The exhaust from the kiln will be monitored for its temperature and the
PID of cement plan and Discussion
content of the carbon monoxide. Depending on the amount of the carbon monoxide and temperature of the
exhaust gas an appropriate control action will be taken to send the right mixture of air into the combustion
zone of the kiln.
PID of cement plan and Discussion
D )The control principle:
ACS is employed in the circuit to actually control the temperature and the performance of kiln. The air intake
to the kiln is controlled using the ACS operation. The sensor senses the level of the carbon monoxide in
the exhaust gas and will, in turn, will give input to the software to assess the exact amount of air needed
for the combustion as per the requirements of the stoichiometry as well as, as per the requirements of the
excess air concept. Once it is calculated the required amount of the air will be sent into the kiln for the sake
of complete combustion of the coal contained in the kiln. If there is required to send extra air for combustion
the compensated air circuit will be operated to send in extra air or alternatively if there is need for more fuel
in the combustion chamber the fuel gas circuit will be operated to send in more amount of the combustion
gas in addition to the main stream coal entering the kiln. In either case, the combustion of the coal in the
kiln will be done in order to make it complete by using the governing cycle of air and fuel. AS unit will thus
control the combustion process in the rotary kiln (Larsen, 1980).
PID of cement plan and Discussion
e) Control loop configuration:
An AC station mounted in the circuit will monitor the data from the infrared analyzer and a temperature
transducer. The infrared analyzer will work out to assess the amount of the carbon monoxide in the exhaust
and will input the data the control station AC station. AC station will employ a control strategy software to
analyze the amount of the requirements of the air and the fuel needed to enter the kiln and subsequently it
will work for controlling the intake of the right amount of air into the system. Typical factors that will be
controlled by the unit are the zone temperature in the kiln, the fuel to combustion air stoichiometric ratio,
Fuel to air ratio adjustment in accordance with the requirement of the carbon monoxide in the outlet air.
Working to control the air and the gas flow paths in the system. Also works out to control the alarms in the
system to monitor the flow of the air and the gas(Shakkotai,198 …
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