Paraphrasing Hydraulics Report

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Department of civil engineering
HYDRAULICS-1
Spring 2017 CIVIL 0008
Individual Assignment
)Extensive laboratory reports)
Submitted by
ID:
Submitted to: Mr.Himanshu Gaur
1
Table Of Content
Summary
4
Introdaction
5-6
Materials and methods
7-10
Result
11-16
Discussion
17-18
Conclusion and Recommendation
19-20
References
21
2
List Of Figure
N.O figure
Discraption
materials used to determine density and S.G of
Figure 3.1
liquids
Figure 3.2
Ways to use Eureka can method
Figure 3.3
ways to measure time when dropping the
ball
(stone, iron, coin, Eureka can and timer)
Figure 3.4
that use to verify Archimedes principle
Figure 3.5
machine used to verify Bernoulli’s theorem
Figure 4.1
chart show relationship between viscosity and
time
Figure 4.2
relationship between area & velocity head
Figure 4.3
relationship between pressure head &
velocity head
List of Table
N.O Table
Discraption
Table 4.1
result of viscosity fluids
Table 4.2
result of Archimedes principle
experiment
Table 4.3
result after calculation for exp4
3
1. Summary
The main objective of this report is to explain and analyze the data and results of
experiments that we have done before, and to clarify their physical equations and
applications in scientific and practical life and to prove their mathematical
equivalent in the form of true experiments and facts.
So in this report I will discuss and analyze four experiment which is:
1. Determination of density and specific gravity of liquid
2. Determination of viscosity of liquid
3. Verification of Archimedes principle
4. Verification of Bernoulli’s theorem
So, In each experiment I will explain a set of important points which is provide
and give a clear picture for the reader about that experiments and provide general
idea of each experiment with its materials, results and discuss the results based on
the facts available and prove the aim.
In general , every experiment provide different aim , so in first experiment we
need to determine specific gravity and density of water by different way and must
the final result of density its almost 1000 kg/m3.. The second experiment is to
prove viscosity in different fluids which is ( gals rain, machine oil and cook oil)
by this experiment we will prove which have lass and haggiest viscosity. The third
experiment have different idea which is to verify Archimedes principle by many
different object like: (stoon,iron and coin). Last experiment is to prove the
Bernoulli’s theorem and total energy at all section are equal , so this is the result
we got in this test .
4
2. Introduction
EXP 1:
The main objective of this experiment is to determine density and specific gravity
of water by different method which is : ( measuring beaker, Eureka can and
density bottle). The density of the liquid can be determined using a specific
gravity gauge. This tool is placed in the liquid so that it dips into it. The depth of
the dive indicates the density of the liquid. Solid body density can be determined
by measuring body mass, calculating its size, and dividing the mass by volume.
The size can be determined by immersing the body in water and the size of the
body is equal to the volume of the excess water. There are Some of the
applications are due to the specific gravity of saltwater and coral reef aquaculture
enthusiasts to assess salinity in their basins. also used for a number of scientific
works, including chemistry, geology, biology and medicine.
EXP 2:
The main aim of this experiment is to define viscosity for many different fluids in
fixed temperature which is (Glycerin, machine oil and cook oil). As we know
viscosity Is a property of the material that causes a strong resistance or friction
between the layers of the liquid that obstructs sliding over each other
Or – the fluid resistance to flow by forces of the type of friction forces, and reduce
the viscosity of the fluid by increasing its ability to flow and vice versa Some of
the fluids are very fluid and motionless and their resistance to movement of solid
objects is small and they have a small viscosity (such as water, alcohol),
Some fluids are very fluid and motionless, and their resistance to movement of
solid objects is large and has a large viscosity (e.g. honey, glycerin). The viscosity
is influenced by two important factors which is : Temperature and type of liquid.
There are many practical applications used for the viscosity such as: Lubrication
(purpose) Reduce friction heat and Protect machine parts from corrosion.
5
EXP 3:
The aim of this experiment is to prove the principle of Archimedes, which states
that the upward buoyancy force arises by immersing an object in a fluid whether it
is inundation in whole or in part, where the weight of the fluid discharged from
the total fluid during the immersion process is equal to the size of the submerged
body. We use to prove that different object which is: stone, iron and coin.They are
many Examples applications of principle of Archimedes like: Hydrometer, Ship,
The submarine and Airship, for example: the moment of the rise of the submarine
to the surface, it is only need to empty the reservoirs or tanks that have already
fallen to fall, and the weight and thus float are climb to the surface.
EXP 4:
The main objective of this experiment is to verify the Bernoulli’s theorem which
state that the pressure of the liquid rises with its low speed, and in scientific sense
the pressure decreases with increasing speed. Through the experiment we toke
reading from piezometer tubes in many trail ,than we use equation for every trail
and the total energy at all section are almost equal which prove Bernoulli’s
theorem . The principle of Bernoulli is one of the most important principles that
explain the behavior of liquid and mobile gases, whether in water transport pipes
or in moving water. The most important practical application of Bernoulli’s
theorem is liftings force of aircraft which is The wings of the plane curved from
the top more than the bottom to be the speed of air at the top is greater than below
so, Bernoulli principle that the pressure at the top is less than the pressure from the
bottom of the wing and from which the force is generated on the wing from the
bottom of the highest than the plane rises.
6
3. Materials and Methods
EXP1:
This experiment we used 3 different methods that’s to prove S.I standard of water
density which is say: the density of water in 20 c is 998.2 kg/?3 and this is often
rounded up to 1000kg/?3.
Which density of liquid means the physical attributes and properties of any object. It
is also the relationship between the mass and volume. The relationship between mass
and volume is considered to be positive. The density of the liquid is affected by
pressure and heat factors, and the effect of heat on objects is expressed by its
expansion. So if liquid density we want to found, one of the following methods must
be followed: Measuring beaker, Eureka can and Density bottle.
Which can calculate density by ? = ???? (?)/ ?????? (??) × (106/103) (???3)
The specific gravity is the mass ratio of a given volume of material to an equal
volume mass of water. It is extracted by dividing the density of the material by the
water density at 4 ° C or 20 ° C and we measuring by using sample equation which is:
?. ? =??????? ?? ??????/??????? ?? ?????(?? ?????).
Finally of this experiment we can measure specific gravity direct from the liquid by
using Hydrometer then we use mathematic equation as we show before to find it.
In this experiment we used many different material to find density of liquid and S.G
as I show in this fig: ( Gaur,H, (2017))
Fig 3.1: materials used to determine density and S.G of liquids
7
Fig3.2: Ways to use Eureka can method
EXP2:
Viscosity is the fluid resistance of the flow, and the amount of resistance to pressure
forcing him to move and gonorrhea. The more fluid a viscosity is, the less likely it is
to run.. So in this experiment we use 3 different fluids, with different viscosity to
determinate the viscosity for every fluids.
The fluid is a state of matter, a fluid that has a fixed volume when the temperature and
pressure are established, and which takes the form of the vessel containing it As the
liquids expand by heating, shrink in the cooling. So in this experiment we will use 3
types of liquids at the constant temperature for the knowledge of the most and least
viscosity and these liquids are: cook oil, machine car oil and Glycerin.
Than we use sample equation to find viscosity which is:
µ= (gd2) /( 18v) / (6/p)-1 .
Finally, through this exterminate we used many different material that help as to find
viscosity like: 3 different fluids (machine oil, cooking oil and Glycerin), steel ball,
timer. (Kumar, U, (2016)).
.
Fig3.3: ways to measure time when dropping the ball
8
EXP3:
As we know Archimedes principle state that the immersion process is equal to the size
of the submerged body, so in this experiment mean (apparent loss of weight of object
in water is equal to the weight of water displaced. To prove that we used many
different objects this is: stone + iron + coin
To prove Archimedes principle we compare finally the result we found between
weight of water displaced must = apparent loss of weight of object in water by using
Dive objects and calculate the amount of water falling from the cup method..
Through this experiment we used many Apparatus and material like:
Different object (stone + iron + coin), Eureka can, spring balance and beakers.
(Gaur,H, (2017))
,
Fig3.4: (stone, iron, coin, Eureka can and timer) that use to verify Archimedes
principle
EXP 4:
The last experiment in these reports is to prove Bernoulli’s theorem which state that if
the non-performing liquid flows along a tube of un even cross-section, the pressure is
lower at the contractions where the speed is higher, and higher where the tube opens
and stagnation prevails. Many people find this situation paradoxical when they first
encounter it (higher speed, lower pressure):
9
1. fluid is incompressible ( density r is constant );
2. flow is steady:
3. flow is frictionless (t = 0);
4. along a streamline;
Then, it is expressed with the following equation:
In this experiment we used many important Apparatus and materials which is:
Water, Tank for water supply, measuring tank, piezometer tubes and stop watch.
(Bansal,K, (2010.09))
Fig3.5: machine used to verify Bernoulli’s theorem
10
4. Result
EXP1:
1. Breaker: breaker empty= 210 g , Volume= 300 ml, breaker with water =496 g
So, the real mass of water = breaker with water- breaker empty
=496—210 = 286×10-3 kg
Density = mass/volume so, 286×10-3 kg / 300×10-6 = 953.3 kg/m3
_______________________________________________________________
2. Eureka Can: volume of cube= 1.9 x 1.9 x 1.9 = 6.859 mm3 , empty mass = 49
g , cube with water mass = 55.5 g
So, mass = 55.5-49 = 6.5 g
Density=6.5 x 10-3 / 6.859 x 10-6 = 947.6 kg/m3
_______________________________________________________________
3. Density bottle: volume =50 ml , empty mass= 32 g , with water=82 g
So, mass= 85-32 = 50 g
Density = 50 x 10-3 / 50 x 10-6 = 1000 kg/m3
4. ?. ? =??????? ?? ?????? / ??????? ?? ????? (no unit)
Density of liquid (water)= 1000 kg/m3 , density of water= 1000 kg/m3
So, S.G= 1000 / 1000 = 1 kg/m3.
11
EXP2:
Diameter of ball (1.6 mm) = 0.0016 m
Distance from first point to end point (200 mm) = 0.2m
Density for steel bar (7800 kg/m3)
Density of: (glycerin) = 1260, machine car oil= 899, cooking oil= 930
Table 4.1: result of viscosity fluids
No
Liquid
Specific
Gravity
Kinematic
Viscosity
??
(v x??? ) ?
at ?? °?
Typical time to fall 200
mm
Distance
Time
1
glycerin
1.26
0.063×105
3.2 mm
2.35 s
2
Cooking oil
0.93
0.153×105
3.2 mm
98 s
3
Machine car oil
0.899
0.087×105
3.2 mm
1.71 s
First of all we calculate velocity v= H / t
1. V (glycerin)= 0.150 m / 2.35 s = 0.063 m/s
2. V (cooking oil)= 0.150 m / 98 s = 0.153 m/s
3. V (Machine car oil)= 0.150 m / 1.71 s = 0.087 m/s
Then calculate viscosity =
? ??
?? ?
?
( – ?)
?
1. Glycerin = 9.81 x (3.2 x 10-3)2 / ((18 x 0.063) x (7800 / 1260) – 1 )
= 4.59 x 10-4 kg/m.s
2. Cooking oil = 9.81 x (3.2 x 10-3)2 / ((18 x 0.153) x (7800 / 930) – 1 )
= 2.68 x 10-4 kg/m.s
3. Machine car oil = 9.81 x (3.2 x 10-3)2 / ((18 x 0.087) x (7800 / 899) – 1 )
= 4.09 x 10-4 kg/m.s
12
Finally I calculate specific gravity = ?. ? =??????? ?? ?????? / ??????? ??
?????
1. Glycerin = 1260 / 1000 = 1.26
2. Cooking oil = 930 / 1000 = 0.93
3. Machine car oil = 899 / 1000 = 0.899
Viscosity Vs Time
2.50
2.30
2.10
Time (sec)
1.90
1.70
1.50
1.30
1.10
0.90
0.70
0.50
Time
4.59*10-4
4.09*10-4
2.68*10-4
Galycerin
Car oil
Cooking oil
2.35
1.71
0.98
Fig4.1: chart show relationship between viscosity and time
EXP3:
Table 4.2: result of Archimedes principle experiment
S
The type
Weight of the
Weight of the
Apparent loss of
Weight of
No
of object
Object in air
Object in water
weight of the
water
A – gm
B – gm
object in water
displaced
A-B =C gm
D – gm
40 gm
20 gm
18 gm
80 gm
30 gm
28 gm
260 gm
50 gm
47 gm
1.
stone
60 gm
2.0.29g =290
Iron gf
110 gm
3.
Coin
310 gm
13
-we measure apparent loss of weight of the object in water =
(Weight of object in air – weight of the object in water)
1. Stone = 60 gm – 40 gm = 20 gm
2. Iron = 110 gm – 80 gm = 30 gm
3. Coin = 310 gm – 260 gm = 50 gm
Then we found weight of water displaced from the experiment reading.
EXP4:
Table 4.3 : result after calculation for exp4
Piezometer
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
0.349
0.353
0.269
0.139
1.66
2.26
2.62
2.33
2.89
3.05
3.19
5.3O9
4.227
2.659
2.O11 2.214
2.679
3.192
3.745
4.348
4.993
5.30
O.84
1.06
1.69
2.23
2.03
1.68
1.40
1.20
1.03
0.90
0.85
0.349
0.353
0.269
0.139
O.166 O.226 O.262
0.233
0.298
0.305
0.319
tubes
Reading of
piezometer
(h)
Area ( m2)
x 10
-4
Velocity of
water(m/s)
Pressure
(p/pg) =
h(m)
Velocity
O.O35 O.O57 O.145 O.253 O.210 O.143 O.O99 O.O73 O.O54 O.O41 O.O36
head (v2/2g)
Datum (z)
-O.O54
-O.O34
-O.O22
-O.OO8
O.OO7
Total
O.33
O.376
O.392 O.384 O.383 O.391 O.395
(p/pg+v2/2g
+z
14
O.O22
O.O37
O.O52
O.O67
O.O82
O.O102
O.358
O.419
O.428
O.367
Way Haw to find all calculation for first tubes :
*First we calculate Q= v / t
Q= 5 x 10-3 / 11.0 = 4.5 x 10-4 m3/s
*Area , datum fixed from table
Table 4.4: value of area and datum
*Velocity of water = Q/area
V= 4.5 x10-4 / 5.309 x10-4 = 0.84 m2
*pressure = p/pg = h ( its same value of piezometer reading)
*velocity head = v2 / 2g = (0.84)2 / ( 2 x 9.81) = 0.035 m/s
*Total = (p/pg)+(v2/2g)+(z) = 0.349 + 0.035 – 0.054 = 0.33 m
15
Viscosity Vs Area
6.50
velocity (m/s))
5.50
4.50
3.50
2.50
1.50
0.50
Area
0.04
0.06
0.15
5.31
4.23
2.66
Figure 4.2: relationship between area & velocity head
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
pressure head
0.20
velosity head
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Figure 4.3: relationship between pressure head & velocity head
( when increase pressure & decrease in velocity)
16
1
5. Discussion
EXP1:
As we noticed in this experiment, it must be proved that the density of water must be
1000 kg/m3 or less by a percentage not exceeding 1% in all methods . In the first
method is Beaker we got the result after the calculations about 953.3 kg/m3 which
confirms the validity of the experiment because the result is close to 1000 kg/m3 . On
the other hand, the Eureka can got a score of 947.6, which is less accurate but within
limits Because this method depends on the calculation of the amount of water that
falls from the Eureka can and thus difficult to estimate the water that falls and which
we have overcome. In the last method we obtained a very accurate result which is
1000 kg/m3 , which confirms that we have proven correctly, which is equal to the
density of water and estimated at 1000 kg/m3 Because the bottle with a known size is
designed to calculate the density of any liquid. (Mario, A, (2009)
EXP2:
In this experiment We filled the three jars with one type of fluid which is (glycerin,
car machine oil and cooking oil) and we measure the time taken of ball up to reaches
to the end point.. First one is glycerin, we noticed that the time of ball made until it
reached from start point up to end point took about 2.35 seconds, which is the highest
number of seconds between three liquids, which means that glycerin carries the
highest viscosity between this three liquid. Second liquid is machine car oil , the ball
took until reached to the end point almost 1.71 seconds, which is the second highest
time estimated between the three liquids, which means that has less viscosity than
glycerin. Third liquid, is cooking oil, the ball take until reached to end point almost
0.98 seconds, which means that, the cooking oil have lass viscosity than glycerin and
car oil.
Finally from all this result we conclude that: Viscosity have ? Inverse relationship
with velocity and Positive relationship with Time. (Wiley,J, (2006)
17
EXP3:
In this experience we want to emphasize the principle of Archimedes. So through the
experiment result we noted that, they are small error because same of the displaced
water fall into the ground and did not fall off the cube so it was not counted for
example the apparent loss of weight of the coin in water is 50 gm however the weight
of water displaced is 47gm, so there is 3 gm error. But these simple errors are present
in all practical experiments, so I deduced from all of the above as following:
1. According to the results obtained, we are sure that when the body is immersed
as molecule or completely in water, it loses weight.
2. The body loses its total weight when it is completely immersed in water.
3. When the body is partially or wholly in water is :
Loss in body weight = the weight of water that falls when the body is introduced
into water.
4. Volume of water displaced = volume of the body submerged in water.
So as we notice from this prove and result:
The relationship between Water is displaced and the weight of body introduces is
positive.
EXP4:
In this experiment we verify Bernoulli theorem , as we notice from the result , the
total; energy in all section are almost same , that’s mean when the cross section was
smaller, there was an increase in velocities along the distribution tube. The result
showed that the greater pressure differentials give the greatest velocity of the flow of
fluids. We also noticed through the experiment increase in pressure when opening the
tubes, We conclude from this that there is an inverse relationship between pressure
and speed, when increase pressure they are decrease in velocity.
(Arey , Ariena)(2012), (https://ar.scribd.com/doc/246653261/Bernoulli-s-PrincipleDemonstration-Lab-Report).
18
6. Conclusion and Recommendation
EXP1:
In these experiments we used 3 different methods to calculate the density of water
which is: measuring beaker, Eureka Can and density bottle.
Like what has been shown to us through experiments, different results have emerged
for each method. The method of glass density is the most accurate output of the three
methods and the actual result is “1000 kg/m3”. In the beaker method we find the
measurement of density after the calculations about “953.3 kg/m3”, which come as the
second best accuracy of the three methods. The last method, which is the Eureka Can,
The rate is about “947.6 kg/m3”, because as we know in Eureka can method the rate of
errors are higher because of the difficulty o …
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