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6-2: Network Delays and the User Experience
Prompt: A group decision system is being built over a network and, because of the lag inherent
to the network, is experiencing delays. For each of the situations below, suggest the longest
acceptable amount of time the delay could last without negatively affecting the user.
System confirming the userÂ’s password during log-in
Logging into a system is an everyday occurrence for many people. This frequency results
in user’s developing expectations on delay times. “For simple, repetitive tasks that
require little problem solving, users want to perform rapidly and are annoyed by delays of
more than a few tenths of a second” (Shneiderman, 2010). A wait time any longer than 1
second here, may negatively affect users. Worry of a mistyped user name or password
may occur after that time.
Synchronous group editing of a document
In this situation, both user think time and response time is largely dependent on the speed
at which they are receiving updates from their partners. Results of a study on how groups
cope with network delays during collaborative note taking suggest that “delay interferes
with the ability to monitor team membersÂ’ activities and adjust oneÂ’s behavior
accordingly. In effect, delay forces independent, redundant work” (Ignat, Oster, et al,
2015, p. 17). For example, if I were taking notes on a lecture with several of my
classmates using a collaborative editing tool, I may end up taking the same note as
another user (or vice versa) if updates are occurring too much longer than real-time. A
delay longer than 2 seconds here, could negatively affect the user.
Asynchronous critiquing of other participantsÂ’ work
As asynchronous tools are utilized to view participantÂ’s work at a different time, I do not
see delay time being a significant factor. For example, I upload this assignment tonight
and receive feedback a few days later. The delay could last for 30 minutes, without
negatively affecting the user, as viewing updates immediately is not expected. The only
delay time that would be a factor would be in uploading and retrieving the document
from the server.
Voting on serious issues
When someone has strong feelings on an issue, they want validation that their opinion is
heard/seen by their peers. In the case of an online poll, I think that a user would start
getting worried if they did not see their submission registered outside of 2 seconds.
Similarly, Shneiderman (2010) points out that an unusually short response time (letÂ’s say
less than .25 seconds in this case) could cause anxiety for the user. The voter may think
that their vote didnÂ’t register correctly.
Ignat, C., Oster, G., Fox, O., Shalin, V. L., & Charoy, F. (2015). How Do User Groups Cope
with Delay in Real-Time Collaborative Note Taking. ECSCW 2015: Proceedings of the
14th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 19-23 September
2015, Oslo, Norway, 223-242. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20499-4_12
Shneiderman, B., & Plaisant, C. (2010). Designing the user interface: Strategies for Effective
Human-Computer Interaction (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Higher Education.
Newton Ad Agency
Running head: Newton Ad Agency
Newton Ad Agency
Newton Ad Agency
This paper is a look into the IT requirements and recommendations of the fictional Newton Ad
agency. We will look at the specified requirements, and the subsequent assignments, and the
reasoning behind those assignments.
Newton Ad Agency
Newton Ad Agency
When the Newton Ad Agency came to us for IT work, we knew we had a bit of a job ahead
of us. With the budget clearly specified for monthly cost, but not for hardware, it really opened
the possibilities in some areas, but shut doors in other.
The Requirements
Newton Ad Agency: Business and Technical Requirements
1. Spend no more than $1,100 per month on internet for all sites (after initial hardware and
setup costs)
2. The company IP addresses should be within the following range:–
Austin Headquarters: Business and Technical Requirements
1. Fast WAN connectivity
2. Must have backup WAN connectivity with 99.999% uptime
3. IP addresses must support 500 hosts
4. Must provide wireless access for users
5. All wireless connectivity must be centrally managed
Austin Headquarters: Available Internet Options
1. Fiber Optics ($700)
2. T1 ($300)
3. Cable ($175)
4. DSL ($75)
Newton Ad Agency
New York Office: Business and Technical Requirements
1. Fast WAN connectivity
2. IP address strategy for 200 users/PCs
New York Office: Available Internet Options
1. Fiber Optics ($600)
2. T1 ($300)
3. Cable ($125)
4. DSL ($50)
Rural Satellite Office: Business and Technical Requirements
1. Does not have any type of commercial WAN connectivity
2. Needs to have WAN connectivity (located 2 miles from headquarters and line of sight—
show this in a diagram)
IP address strategy needs to support 200 users/PCs
The IP Assignments
I have decided on the following ranges for the project:
Austin Headquarters: –
The starting address has a binary of 11000000.10101000.01100100.00000001
The ending address has a binary of 11000000.10101000.01100101.11111110
The subnet is, leaving 510 hosts.
The Broadcast address is, while the subnet address is
The New York Office, will have –
The starting address has a binary of 11000000.10101000.01100110.00000001
Newton Ad Agency
The ending address has a binary of 11000000.10101000.01100110.11111110
The subnet is, leaving 254 hosts.
The Broadcast address is, while the subnet address is
The Satellite office will end up with –
The starting address has a binary of 11000000.10101000.01100111.00000001
The ending address has a binary of 11000000.10101000.01100111.11111110
The subnet is, leaving 254 hosts.
The Broadcast address is, while the subnet address is
The WAN Layout
In keeping within these requirements, I have come up with a solution that meets all
criteria. For the Austin Headquarters, a T1 and a Cable connection keeps to the 99.999% uptime
requirement. This will ensure a fallback in the event one of the connections fail. The wireless
connectivity for users is me with Cisco Enterprise Wireless Access points installed in a way that
each unitÂ’s broadcast overlaps others. This ensures access is at or near 100% throughout the
building. A dedicated connection to the Satellite office is maintained through a Wireless PTP
connection manufactured by Bridgewave, with a clear line of sight, model FL4G-3000 will have
no trouble providing 6.4Gbps in a 2×0 configuration. This model is already configured to operate
in 5G. (Marketing, 2016)
The New York office will be connected via a Fiber Optic connection, which will ensure enough
bandwidth for the web server to operate efficiently. On the next page is a diagram of the
In keeping within the budget of $1100 per month, the selected connections to the ISP
total up to $1075 per month. While full fiber optic connections as the primary conduit for data
would be ideal, we feel that the Cable and T1 connections are next in line for prober usability,
data throughput, and do offer a chance at future scalability.
Newton Ad Agency
Newton Ad Agency
Marketing, B. C. (2016). FL4G-3000 3 Gigabit wireless Backhaul solutions for 4G/LTE
networks. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Bridgewave Communications,

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