please do a 2-3 page’s case study

For this Case Study, you will need to use your knowledge of DMO Marketing to help the region of Catalonia Spain connect Tourists with their local, awesome, food offerings. A successful concept based on this case will help reduce the current overtourism situation in Barcelona, create a sustainable flow of visitors to the outer cities & towns, highlight the unique offerings of the region, and provide the visitor with a memorable experience.The sky is the limit for your solution – however remember that this solution will need to be implementable. After reading the case, please draft a 2-3 page proposal to the Catalonia Tourism Board highlighting your ideas and strategies to aid their efforts.
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Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
CASE STUDY
CATALONIA:
HOW THE FOOD ECONOMY
DRIVES SUSTAINABLE
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
The crew at El Celler de Can Roca, Girona, Spain.
If you have any questions about the
report please contact skiftx@skift.com.
1
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
ABOUT THE CATALAN TOURIST BOARD
The Catalan Tourist Board (CTB) was set up by the Government of Catalonia and is responsible for implementing the government’s tourism promotion policies. CTB is the official body
that works closely with the Catalan public and private sector to promote and consolidate the
“Catalunya” brand around the world. Catalonia is a Mediterranean destination with a millenary
history, its own culture and language and a wealthy historical and natural heritage. Catalonia
offers many attractions for all sorts of visitors: culture, relax, nature, families, sports, business,
etc. Its great capacities and excellent facilities place it among Europe’s prime tourist areas,
with over 31 million tourists a year, more than half from abroad. At roughly 12% of GDP, tourism is one of Catalonia’s main sources of wealth and hence one of its strategic priorities.
Obtaining measurable results is one of the priority directives of the CTB, which focuses its
efforts on tourism resources and companies in the industry. To this end, the CTB supports
commercialitzation of products.
2
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary
4
Forward from Skift
5
Introduction
7
Local Food Systems and Lessons for Tourism
10
The Multiplier Effect, A Policy Tool for the “Local Food” Movement
12
Profiling Catalonia’s Tourism Challenges
17
Food, Culture and Catalonia’s Rural Tourism Industry
22
Catalonia’s Regional Culinary Footprint
26
Tourism and Exporting Experiences
33
Applying Food-Systems Thinking to Tourism
36
Executive Letter
40
Sources and Further Reading
41
ABOUT SKIFT
Skift is the largest industry intelligence platform, providing
Media, Insights & Marketing to key sectors of travel.
SkiftX is Skift’s in-house content marketing studio, working
collaboratively with partners on integrated projects
including webinars, video, research, and live events.
Visit skiftx.com to learn more or email at skiftx@skift.com.
MASTHEAD
Research Director / Luke Bujarski
Project Manager / Kirstie Jiongco
Senior Designer / Ping Chan
Executive Sales Director / Deborah Knudsen
3
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Sustainability lnto Action: This report looks at Catalonia, Spain as a prime example
of how destinations can foster best practices in sustainable tourism, by encouraging
and promoting local food systems. Here we look at the challenges of overtourism
and how local stakeholders can work toward a longer-term vision, where wellmanaged tourism equates to sustainable economic growth for Catalonia. Beyond
Barcelona, the autonomous community of Catalonia is home to a wealth of local
farmers, producers and culinary establishments. Each of the four provinces and 42
counties within Catalonia adds something unique to the region’s culinary footprint.
Highlighting the interconnected nature of this exciting ecosystem, and how the
different actors within it can unite under the banner of sustainable food is the focus
of this report.
Impetus: Food tourism and local cuisine promotion is now a common hook used by
destination marketers. Yet, fine restaurants and eating establishments are just part
of this story. As it turns out, people actually care about, or at the very least, have an
interest in understanding where their food comes from. This presents an opportunity
for Catalonia’s tourism stakeholders to leverage and promote local farmers,
producers and retailers at the regional level, and to develop more effective tourism
promotion strategies that align with the greater economic good.
About the author: Luke Bujarski is the founding director of Skift Research, an
independent business unit of Skift.com, focused on delivering impactful intelligence
on the forces now shaping the future of travel. Among other pursuits, Luke lived and
worked in Barcelona for a number of years. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Spanish
linguistics, and a Masters in Urban Planning from the University of Illinois at Urbana
Champaign, with a concentration in regional economics.
4
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
FORWARD FROM SKIFT:
OPPORTUNITY OR HEADWIND?
WHAT SUSTAINABILITY MEANS
FOR THE TRAVEL INDUSTRY
Until very recently, the term sustainability in travel has been one of those things
that is both everyone’s problem, and no one’s problem at the same time. Travelers
come and go and don’t necessarily see the repercussions that their actions extoll
on host communities. Likewise, travel brands have gone global and can become
disconnected with the places where they operate.
Sustainability also means different things to different segments of travel. This
compounds the challenge of drawing consensus on how to address the increasingly
obvious impact that travel is having on human and natural ecosystems. The United
Nations’ recent push for sustainability in travel has also come at a somewhat
inconvenient time, in the broader geopolitical context.
Arguably, sustainability in travel is
a long-run challenge that needs
to be addressed now. But during
periods of global economic and
political uncertainty, institutions
and individuals tend to have a more
difficult time acting on long-run
challenges. People and businesses
are forced to deal with more
imminent threats. Making sure that
political leaders abide by established
societal norms, for example, imposes
a heavy tax on people’s time and
optimism. This makes it difficult
to focus on things like sustainability – or education, housing, infrastructure, and
business growth – for that matter.
DURING PERIODS OF GLOBAL
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL
UNCERTAINTY, INSTITUTIONS
AND INDIVIDUALS TEND TO HAVE
A MORE DIFFICULT TIME ACTING
ON LONG-RUN CHALLENGES.
Likewise, the global travel industry rarely acts as a unified front on pressing issues
– with some exceptions. Sustainability could be one of those unifying forces. Data
from the International Civil Aviation Organization shows that global air traffic has
spiked from 1 trillion to 7 trillion passenger kilometers between 1974 and 2015. These
5
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SUSTAINABILITY IN TRAVEL
ALSO REFLECTS ON THE
HUMAN ELEMENT AND WHAT
THE COMMODITIZATION OF THE
TRAVEL EXPERIENCE COULD
DO TO PEOPLE’S DESIRE TO
TRAVEL HERE, VERSUS THERE.
SKIFT REPORT 2017
same ICAO and Airbus forecasts suggest
that figure could climb to 15 trillion by 2034.
As industry leaders, we want to see tourism
volumes continue to grow – but clearly not if
that growth ruins the travel experience.
Infrastructure capacity and environmental
constraints aside, doubling the volume of
global air traffic could have unforeseen
impacts on the quality of the travel
experience for magical places like Barcelona
or Amsterdam or Iceland. In other words,
sustainability in travel also reflects on
the human element and what the
commoditization of the travel experience could do to people’s desire to travel here,
versus there.
Despite the heavy implications, sustainability doesn’t need to be a burden on travel
brands. Sustainability can offer influencers a way to differentiate themselves from
an increasingly noisy and competitive landscape. Hotels can offer accommodations
while making their guests feel good about their environmental footprint; online travel
agencies can leverage new and ecofriendly content categories to drive traffic to their
marketplaces; and destinations can ensure better quality experiences for the guests as
well as for their hosts.
In this context, we argue that travel industry leaders should prioritize sustainability
now, even more than during periods of relative macro stability. Change imperatives
for sustainability are less likely to come from the top down. In a time when “big
government” is being put into question e.g. with the erosion of democratic values
in the U.S. and the economic unraveling of the European Union, who will set the
sustainability agenda for such a global industry that is modern tourism? Here, we
believe that travel leaders have a unique opportunity to spearhead sustainability in
a way that makes an impact and connects with individuals. Ultimately, that push
will need to come at the individual, company and destination level. Popular places
like Barcelona that attract millions every year, have the added responsibility to set a
proactive agenda around sustainability. Food, the connector of cultures and people,
can help in that mission.
Luke Bujarski, Head of Research – Skift
6
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
INTRODUCTION:
FOOD AND SUSTAINABLE TOURISM,
WHAT’S THE CONNECTION?
The United Nations officially declared 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable
Tourism for Development – and for good reason. With over 1.2 billion people now
crossing international borders each year, the power and potential of travel and
tourism as a force for good, aimed at fostering intercultural exchange and economic
development for communities around the world is unprecedented. Yet, for all of
the benefits, this historic proliferation of travel as a way of life can also come with
repercussions.
Yet sustainability in the context of travel can mean different things to different
people. Protection of local natural ecosystems, cutting down on Co2 emissions and
the application of environmentally-friendly products and building materials for
accommodations immediately comes to mind. Sustainability can also reflect cultural
preservation and measures aimed at helping locals maximize the economic benefits
of tourism.
THE GLOBAL DEMAND FOR TRAVEL
HAS REACHED A POINT WHERE
CERTAIN HOST COMMUNITIES HAVE
TAKEN NOTICE OF THE FALLOUT
AND DIRECT NEGATIVE IMPACTS
THAT OVERTOURISM CAN EXTOLL
ON LOCAL RESIDENTS.
The global demand for travel has
reached a point where certain host
communities have taken notice
of the fallout and direct negative
impacts that overtourism can extoll
on local residents. Simply put, an
uncontrolled influx of tourism dollars
can transform communities in a way
that may alienate local residents,
clearly by changing the overall vibe
of a place but also by limiting access
to amenities and infrastructure
necessary for daily life.
This consumption, where global demand outstrips local residents’ capacity to
compete economically with foreign in-flows of capital, can profoundly alter the
cultural and economic reality of a given community. Fueled by technology, modern
tourism has also gained a reputation for stripping away local cultural identities.
In extreme cases, a glut in demand has manifested into protest from local residents.
In these instances, the positive economic returns of tourism may not match the
7
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
negative social and financial externalities absorbed by the host community. Rising cost
of living including rents, strain on local infrastructure, and less tangible impacts on local
cultural identity are among the concerns.
Places like Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula, Iceland,
Venice, Amsterdam, various towns and cities in
Europe and now Barcelona, Spain are dealing with
these issues of overtourism – albeit in unique ways. So,
what can these and other communities do to improve
the balance between positive and negative impacts
of tourism? The obvious and perhaps most drastic
response to overtourism is to build barriers, regulation
and to limit the access of communities to local
tourists. These barriers can come in various forms:
regulations and permits for new hotel construction;
controls on apartment rentals and marketplaces; and
caps on disembarkations of cruise ship passengers are
some examples.
THOSE COMMUNITIES BLESSED
WITH ENOUGH CULTURAL AND
NATURAL CAPITAL TO ATTRACT
THE MASSES NEED TO APPROACH
THE CHALLENGE IN THE BROADER
CONTEXT OF HOW LOCAL
ECONOMIES INTERACT WITH
GLOBAL TOURISM DOLLARS.
In certain instances, these formal, hard measures may be necessary and indeed
effective in stemming the direct challenges of overtourism. At the same time, these
mechanical fixes alone are unlikely to offer a long-term solution. Those communities
blessed with enough cultural and natural capital to attract the masses need to
approach the challenge in the broader context of how local economies interact with
global tourism dollars.
Understanding, harnessing and successfully channeling tourism traffic and capital in a
way that maximizes benefit to local economies is equally important; tourism officials
and local stakeholders have the challenging job of influencing these forces in the right
direction. Here, food and understanding local food systems in the context of tourism
management and marketing can help maximize these benefits for local communities.
Traveler spend on food and beverage is the largest in-destination expense category.
In 2015, tourism generated over 10 billion euros of in-destination spend for the
autonomous region of Catalonia. An estimated 40% of that went to food and beverage
products and vendors. Understanding how that money circulates throughout the
local economy, how food impacts traveler decisions, and how to maximize the positive
benefits of that spend in terms of economic and social impact holds a critical key to
understanding sustainability and travel.
Here, this report aims to understand the synergies that exist between food tourism,
local food systems, and sustainability.
8
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
Why Catalonia?
In response to these challenges, the Catalan Tourism Board has commissioned Skift
to explore and to better understand the connection between local communities, food
systems, and policies aimed at promoting and developing sustainable tourism. Local
experts and stakeholders also participated in bringing these concepts together. Data
from various sources also highlights Catalonia in the context of food systems.
Anyone that has visited will tell you that Catalonia is special. Its unique character and
richness needs no introduction to the tourism community. But why focus on food?
Barcelona and the surrounding region has become a global mecca for culinary travelers
looking for traditional, as much as the experimental elements of modern cuisine. Some
of the world’s most talented chefs have come to set up shop here both because of the
rich history and local pride when it comes to food, and because of Catalonia’s long
tradition of pushing the so-called “establishment” in the culinary arts but also in culture,
architecture, and fine art.
Secondly, Barcelona’s popularity as a global travel destination has reached a point
where the city and its local residents have begun to feel the repercussions of
overtourism. The community has publicly spoken out about their concerns over the
impact that too many tourists have had in stripping away the local authenticity and
scarcity of what had originally made Barcelona so popular as a destination. Some
would argue that this is a good problem to have. Yet sustainability in travel is as much
about managing expectations, and sometimes even leaving money on the table, to
protect standards in quality of life for locals, as well as genuine experiences for travelers
that want to enjoy destinations in all of their authenticity and local magic.
Thirdly, because Catalonia is ecologically and agriculturally rich with a vast breadth of
farms and local producers that feed the growing demand for increasingly higher food
standards both in terms of taste but also quality. Promoting and helping this local
production system grow holds a key to understanding local food systems and their role
as a catalyst for sustainable best practices.
Lastly and perhaps most importantly, because Catalonia has had a long tradition of
proactive and participatory planning at the city and regional level; much of what
needs to be achieved when striving towards sustainability in travel is coordinated
action. Sound tourism planning is as much about generating demand as it is about
coordinated action between private and public sector players. This landscape offers a
fascinating laboratory and landscape into sustainable tourism best practices.
9
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS AND
LESSONS FOR TOURISM
Olive stand in a store in Girona, Spain.
The rise of the “local food” movement also intersects with tourism and the benefits that come
in the form of local economic development, as visitors indulge in local cuisine. In concept, local
food aims to connect food growers, producers and consumers within the same geographic
region, in order to develop more self-reliant and
resilient food networks; to improve local economies;
or to have an impact on the health, environment,
community, or society of a particular place (Feenstra,
G. 2002). Its roots, at least in the United States, can
be traced back to the early 1980s during which time
much of the proposed guidelines remained buried
under the weight of resistance from pro-business
institutions.
LOCAL FOOD REPRESENTS
AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE
GLOBAL FOOD MODEL THAT
HAS PERVADED MODERN
LIVING, PARTICULARLY IN A
WORLD OF GLOBAL TRADE AND
TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS.
Local food represents an alternative to the global food
model that has pervaded modern living, particularly
10
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
in a world of global trade and transportation networks. A local food model involves
building relationships between food producers, distributors, retailers, and consumers
in a particular place, where they work together to increase food security and ensure
economic, ecological and social sustainability of a community.
Conceptually, the local food model can stretch beyond food production and
consumption and all of the stages in between, to include resource and waste
recovery. Ecologists would identify with the local food model as a closed system,
where all of the inputs needed to sustain the daily activities of members are sourced
within the confines of that ecosystem.
Production
Resource/
Waste Recovery
Processing
Sustainable
Local Food System
Consumption
Distribution
Access
11
Case Study Catalonia: How the Food Economy Drives Sustainable Tourism Development
SKIFT REPORT 2017
THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT, A POLICY TOOL
FOR THE “LOCAL FOOD” MOVEMENT
The economic argument for locallygrown food rests in what regional
economists often refer to as the
multiplier effect. In this context,
the multiplier effect aims to
measure the impact and economic
externalities that local spend can
have on a given community. For
every unit of currency spent on local
products or services, a portion of
that spend gets recycled back into
the local economy in the form of
payments and wages to other local
parties including local government.
Economic development planners
often use this intuitive model to
rationalize incentives when courting industry to relocate to their respective jurisdictions. Typically,
economic impact studies use financial and economic data to generate estimates of output, GDP,
employment and tax revenues associated with changes in the level of e …
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