Politcal Science Questions

All questions are listed here in the description and the requirements and also have been uploaded in the file below. Part I: Short AnswerInstructions: Answer each question in one paragraph (approximately 4 to 6 sentences)1. Explain how grants-in-aid influence state-federal relations.2. Describe the legal standing of local governments vis-à-vis state and federal governments.3. Explain why Kamin believes there is an uneasy “status quo” regarding marijuana policy.4. Describe how the U.S. Supreme Court changed their federalism jurisprudence starting in the 1990s.5. Describe the reasons for K-12 education interdistrict funding disparities within states and the legal and political efforts to address these disparities.6. Explain why the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) reduced the federal role in education, as described by Saultz, Fusarelli, and McEachin,7. Explain the difference between open and closed primaries and discuss the political biases inherent in each.8. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the top-two primary.9. Explain why state legislative elections are not very competitive.10. Describe the political dynamics of the 2003 gubernatorial recall election in California.11. Explain why states have a difficult time limiting the influence of money in state elections.12. Describe that changes that term limits in California have brought about as discussed by Kousser, Cain and Kurtz.13. Define “gerrymandering” and explain how it limits competition in legislative elections.14. Describe the major sources of state revenue.15. Explain the difference between a progressive, regressive, and flat (proportional) tax.16. Assess the progressivity of the California tax system and what could be done to make it more progressive.17. Explain why state governments only have “control” over a small portion of their total expenditures.18. Explain why Schrag thinks California is worse off today than we were in the 1950s and 1960s.19. Explain what proposition 13 did and the budget problems caused by it.20. Explain how states vary in the financing of higher education.21. Summarize Newfield’s argument in favor of low tuition.22. Explain why Newfield believes tuition has increased at public universities.23. Explain why it is difficult to assess how well universities do their job.24. Describe the arguments for and against university autonomy from state officials.25. Explain how SDSU has taken action contrary to California’s master plan for higher education.26. Explain who Medicaid covers and how it is funded.27. Describe “Medicaid maximization” and explain its significance for understanding how Medicaid operates.28. Explain how implementing Medicaid block grants would alter how the program is funded and administered.29. Describe the factors that influence whether governors choose to support Medicaid expansion, as discussed by Flagg.30. Explain why most bills proposed in state legislatures do not get enacted into law.31. Describe the difference between a “professional” and “citizen” legislature.32. Explain why Rosenthal thinks the public is unfairly critical of state legislatures.33. Explain why Rosenthal argues that the old saying that making laws is like making sausage isn’t accurate.34. Define a “plural executive” and discuss its implications for gubernatorial power.35. Define a “line item veto” and explain why it is a source of power for governors vis-à-vis legislators.36. Explain how Syer wants to reform the California executive branch.37. Describe the different ways that states choose their judges.38. Explain why Phillips supports merit selection.39. Describe Geyh’s argument regarding whether we should elect judges.Part II: EssaysInstructions: Answer each prompt in approximately 3 to 4 paragraphs.1. Describe the state-federal conflict over marijuana laws, including how the courts have interpreted federal authority in this area and the problems caused by conflicting state and federal laws.2. Describe and assess the arguments for and against standardized testing for K-12 students.3. Discuss the impact of term limits on both the legislative process and state elections.4. Assess the effectiveness of California’s Citizens Redistricting Commission (CRC).5. Explain how California got into a budget crisis in the early 2000s and what it did to try to get out of it.6. Describe and assess the arguments for and against increasing tuition at state universities.7. Describe how California organizes its higher education system and assess how well it works.8. Explain why Newfield believes a market-orientation is making public higher education more expensive and undermining the quality of education.9. Describe three potential reforms to the Medicaid program and assess their likely impact.10. Describe the arguments for and against legislative districts with small populations.11. Describe the debate over whether citizen or professional legislatures are better.12. Describe the power of governors and explain why informal powers are more important than formal powers.13. Describe the arguments for and against electing state judges.
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Part I: Short Answer
Instructions: Answer each question in one paragraph (approximately 4 to 6 sentences)
1. Explain how grants-in-aid influence state-federal relations.
2. Describe the legal standing of local governments vis-à-vis state and federal governments.
3. Explain why Kamin believes there is an uneasy “status quo” regarding marijuana policy.
4. Describe how the U.S. Supreme Court changed their federalism jurisprudence starting in the
1990s.
5. Describe the reasons for K-12 education interdistrict funding disparities within states and the
legal and political efforts to address these disparities.
6. Explain why the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) reduced the federal role in education, as
described by Saultz, Fusarelli, and McEachin,
7. Explain the difference between open and closed primaries and discuss the political biases
inherent in each.
8. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of the top-two primary.
9. Explain why state legislative elections are not very competitive.
10. Describe the political dynamics of the 2003 gubernatorial recall election in California.
11. Explain why states have a difficult time limiting the influence of money in state elections.
12. Describe that changes that term limits in California have brought about as discussed by
Kousser, Cain and Kurtz.
13. Define “gerrymandering” and explain how it limits competition in legislative elections.
14. Describe the major sources of state revenue.
15. Explain the difference between a progressive, regressive, and flat (proportional) tax.
16. Assess the progressivity of the California tax system and what could be done to make it more
progressive.
17. Explain why state governments only have “control” over a small portion of their total
expenditures.
1
18. Explain why Schrag thinks California is worse off today than we were in the 1950s and
1960s.
19. Explain what proposition 13 did and the budget problems caused by it.
20. Explain how states vary in the financing of higher education.
21. Summarize Newfield’s argument in favor of low tuition.
22. Explain why Newfield believes tuition has increased at public universities.
23. Explain why it is difficult to assess how well universities do their job.
24. Describe the arguments for and against university autonomy from state officials.
25. Explain how SDSU has taken action contrary to California’s master plan for higher
education.
26. Explain who Medicaid covers and how it is funded.
27. Describe “Medicaid maximization” and explain its significance for understanding how
Medicaid operates.
28. Explain how implementing Medicaid block grants would alter how the program is funded
and administered.
29. Describe the factors that influence whether governors choose to support Medicaid expansion,
as discussed by Flagg.
30. Explain why most bills proposed in state legislatures do not get enacted into law.
31. Describe the difference between a “professional” and “citizen” legislature.
32. Explain why Rosenthal thinks the public is unfairly critical of state legislatures.
33. Explain why Rosenthal argues that the old saying that making laws is like making sausage
isn’t accurate.
34. Define a “plural executive” and discuss its implications for gubernatorial power.
35. Define a “line item veto” and explain why it is a source of power for governors vis-à-vis
legislators.
36. Explain how Syer wants to reform the California executive branch.
37. Describe the different ways that states choose their judges.
2
38. Explain why Phillips supports merit selection.
39. Describe Geyh’s argument regarding whether we should elect judges.
Part II: Essays
Instructions: Answer each prompt in approximately 3 to 4 paragraphs.
1. Describe the state-federal conflict over marijuana laws, including how the courts have
interpreted federal authority in this area and the problems caused by conflicting state and federal
laws.
2. Describe and assess the arguments for and against standardized testing for K-12 students.
3. Discuss the impact of term limits on both the legislative process and state elections.
4. Assess the effectiveness of California’s Citizens Redistricting Commission (CRC).
5. Explain how California got into a budget crisis in the early 2000s and what it did to try to get
out of it.
6. Describe and assess the arguments for and against increasing tuition at state universities.
7. Describe how California organizes its higher education system and assess how well it works.
8. Explain why Newfield believes a market-orientation is making public higher education more
expensive and undermining the quality of education.
9. Describe three potential reforms to the Medicaid program and assess their likely impact.
10. Describe the arguments for and against legislative districts with small populations.
11. Describe the debate over whether citizen or professional legislatures are better.
12. Describe the power of governors and explain why informal powers are more important than
formal powers.
13. Describe the arguments for and against electing state judges.
3

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