Post the key features of an assessment plan to determine how effective a risk communication program?I need it to be from 4 to 5 hundred word ,if you can provide some intr=erresting information from this book :Coppola, D.P., & Maloney, E.K. (2009). Community emergency preparedness: Strategies for creating a disaster resilient public. Boca Raton, FL:CRC Press
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What We Know About
What We Know About reports are a quick summary of new health communication research and
trends of interest to CDC and its partners. They intend to keep health communication and
marketing professionals up-to-date on new findings and their implications for public health
Brought to you by the Marketing and Communication Strategy Branch in the Division of Health Communication and Marketing,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
What is it and how do you do it?
Imagine that you or your research team has just completed a communication intervention designed to reduce
smoking among adolescents. Wouldnt you want to know if the intervention worked? That is where evaluation
comes in. In this case, we would be conducting a summative evaluation (after the intervention) to answer
questions such as: (1) Did rates of smoking among adolescents decrease?; (2) Did the radio ads reach enough
teens to have statistical power?; (3) Did the ads affect norms about smoking in that age group?; (4) Was the
cigarette tax increase during the evaluation period the real reason that smoking decreased?; and (5) Did the ads
boomerang by making teens think that smoking is more prevalent that it actually is in their age group? If the
research team conducted a formative evaluation (before and during the communication intervention), your team
would be able to make any necessary changes such as edits to radio ads or when they are played before
continuing forward. If youre still feeling confused, dont worry; the purpose of this introductory section is to provide
you with some useful background information on evaluation planning.
What is evaluation?
Evaluations are, in a broad sense, concerned with the effectiveness of programs. While common sense evaluation
has a very long history, evaluation research which relies on scientific methods is a young discipline that has grown
massively in recent years (Spiel, 2001). Evaluation is a systematic process to understand what a program does
and how well the program does it. Evaluation results can be used to maintain or improve program quality and to
ensure that future planning can be more evidence-based. Evaluation constitutes part of an ongoing cycle of
program planning, implementation, and improvement (Patton, 1987).
What We Know About Evaluation Planning
Make evaluation part of your health communication program from the
beginning; dont tack it on at the end! The evaluation experience is likely to be
more positive and its results are likely to be more useful if you build evaluation
in from the start and make it an on-going activity. This includes planning the
summative evaluation before the intervention begins as part of the planning
process, which helps to clarify program goals and reasonable outcomes.
Taken together, you and your research team should know why the evaluation is being undertaken (i.e., performance
measurement or improvement) and the type of evidence that would be sufficient for your program and stakeholders.
By evidence, we generally mean information helpful in forming a conclusion or judgment. In other words, evidence
means information bearing on whether a belief or proposition is true or false, valid or invalid, warranted or
unsupported (Schwandt, 2009). Recently there has been some confusion with understanding the term evidence in
evaluation because it is often taken to be synonymous with the term evidence-based. Evidence-based, however, has
two shortcomings: (1) it is narrowly interpreted to mean that only a specific kind of scientific finding, that is, evidence
of causal efficacy, counts as evidence; (2) the idea of an evidence base suggests that evidence is the literal
foundation for action because it provides secure knowledge (Upshur, 2002).
What type of evaluation should I conduct?
Evaluation falls into one of two broad categories: formative and summative. Formative evaluations are conducted
during program development and implementation and are useful if you want direction on how to best achieve your
goals or improve your program. Summative evaluations should be completed once your programs are well
established and will tell you to what extent the program is achieving its goals.
Table 1The types of evaluation within formative and summative evaluation:
Determines who needs the communication program/intervention, how great the
need is, and what can be done to best meet the need. Involves audience
research and informs audience segmentation and marketing mix (4 Ps)
Measures effort and the direct outputs of programs/interventions what and
how much was accomplished (i.e., exposure, reach, knowledge, attitudes, etc.).
Examines the process of implementing the communication
program/intervention and determines whether it is operating as planned. It can
be done continuously or as a one-time assessment. Results are used to
improve the program/intervention.
Measures effect and changes that result from the campaign. Investigates to
what extent the communication program/intervention is achieving its outcomes
in the target populations. These outcomes are the short-term and medium-term
changes in program participants that result directly from the program such as
new knowledge and awareness, attitude change, beliefs, social norms, and
behavior change, etc. Also measures policy changes.
Measures community-level change or longer-term results (i.e., changes in
disease risk status, morbidity, and mortality) that have occurred as a result of
the communication program/intervention. These impacts are the net effects,
typically on the entire school, community, organization, society, or environment.
What We Know About Evaluation Planning
Table 2–Which of these evaluations is most appropriate depends on the stage of your program:
If you are not clear on what you want to evaluate, consider doing a best
practices review of your program before proceeding with your evaluation. A
best practices review determines the most efficient (least amount of effort)
and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task, based on repeatable
procedures that have proven themselves over time for large numbers of
people. This review is likely to identify program strengths and weaknesses,
giving you important insight into what to focus your evaluation on.
How do I conduct an evaluation?
The following six steps are a starting point for tailoring an evaluation to a particular public health effort at a particular
time. In addition, the steps represent an ongoing cycle, rather than a linear sequence, and addressing each of the
steps is an iterative process. For additional guidance, consult the Evaluation Planning Worksheet in the Appendix of
As each step is discussed, examples from the Violence Against Women campaign implemented in Western
Australia will be included. The Violence Against Women campaign was the first of its kind to target violent and
potentially violent men. The campaign taught men that domestic violence is a problem which has negative effects on
children and that specific help is available. Program coordinators decided not to apply traditional interventions often
used in domestic violence cases because they have not been successful at changing behavior. As a result, the
communication intervention included: Publications, including self-help booklets providing tips on how to control
violence and how to contact service providers; mass media advertising; public relations activities with stakeholders,
including womens groups, police, counseling professions and other government departments; and posters and
mailing to worksites (Hausman & Becker, 2000).
What We Know About Evaluation Planning
1. Engage stakeholdersThis first step involves identifying and engaging stakeholders. These individuals have a
vested interest in the evaluation.
Find out what they want to know and how they will use the information.
Involve them in designing and/or conducting the evaluation.
For less involved stakeholders, keep them informed about activities through meetings, reports and other means
of communication (CDC, 1999, 2008; McDonald et al., 2001).
EX: The program planners of the Violence Against Women campaign included internal and external partners as
stakeholders. Internal partners were the Director of the Domestic Violence Prevention Unit and the Family and
Domestic Violence Task Force. External partners were experts in the field of social marketing/behavior change, health
promotions, communication, and womens issues; the Department of Family and Childrens Services; service
providers including trained counselors, therapists and social workers; and the police. The program planners kept in
touch with stakeholders and got input from them throughout the campaign (Turning Point Social Marketing
Collaborative, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Academy for Educational Development, 2005).
2. Identify program elements to monitorIn this step you and/or the team decides whats worth monitoring.
To decide which components of the program to oversee, ask yourself who will use the information and how,
what resources are available, and whether the data can be collected in a technically sound and ethical manner.
Monitoring, also called process evaluation, is an ongoing effort that tracks variables such as funding received,
products and services delivered, payments made, other resources contributed to and expended by the program,
program activities, and adherence to timelines.
Monitoring during program implementation will let you know whether the program is being implemented as
planned and how well the program is reaching your target audience.
If staff and representative participants see problems, you are able to make mid-course program corrections
(CDC, 1999, 2008).
EX: A needs assessment was conducted using focus groups of general population males and perpetrators. It
identified the need for a prevention focus targeting both violent and potentially violent men. The messages would
need to avoid an accusatory or blaming tone because that would cause the target audiences to reject the information.
Process evaluation would be implemented to monitor the campaigns reach, the messages effectiveness, the
audiences awareness of the Mens Domestic Violence Helpline, and changes in attitudes toward domestic violence
(Turning Point Social Marketing Collaborative et al., 2005).
3. Select the key evaluation questionsBasic evaluation questions which should be adapted to your program
What will be evaluated? (i.e., What is the program and in what context does it exist?)
Was fidelity to the intervention plan maintained?
Were exposure levels adequate to make a measurable difference?
What aspects of the program will be considered when judging performance?
What standards (type or level of performance) must be reached for the program to be considered successful?
What evidence will be used to indicate how the program has performed?
How will the lessons learned from the inquiry be used to improve public health effectiveness? (CDC, 1999,
EX: The evaluation measured the following: (1) General awareness of, attitudes towards, and professed behaviors
relating to domestic violence; (2) awareness of how to get help, such as knowledge about available support services
and where to telephone for help; (3) inclination to advise others to telephone the Helpline; and (4) advertising reach
and impact, message take-away, attitudes toward the campaign, calls to the Helpline, and acceptance of referrals to
counseling (Turning Point Social Marketing Collaborative et al., 2005).
What We Know About Evaluation Planning
4. Determine how the information will be gatheredIn this step, you and/or the team must decide how to gather
Decide which information sources and data collection methods will be used.
Develop the right research design for the situation at hand. Although there are many options, typical choices
include: (1) Experimental designs (use random assignment to create intervention and control groups, intervention
is administered to only one group, and then compare the groups on some measure of interest to see if the
intervention had an effect); (2) quasi-experimental designs (same as experimental but does not necessarily
involve random assignment of participants to groups); (3) Surveys (a quick cross-sectional snapshot of an
individual or a group of people on some measure via telephone, Internet, face-to-face, etc.); and (4) case study
designs (an individual or a situation is investigated deeply and considered substantially unique).
The choice of design will determine what will count as evidence, how that evidence will be gathered and
processed, and what kinds of claims can be made on the basis of the evidence (CDC, 1999, 2008; Yin, 2003).
EX: In the first seven months of the campaign, a three-wave statewide random telephone survey was conducted. In
each wave, approximately 400 males, 18-40 years old who were in a heterosexual relationship were interviewed. The
three surveys took place (1) prior to the campaign to serve as a baseline; (2) four weeks into the campaign to assess
initial impact, including advertising reach so that any deficiencies could be detected and modified; and (3) seven
months into the campaign to identify any significant changes in awareness of sources of assistance, particularly the
Mens Domestic Violence Helpline as well as any early changes in beliefs and attitudes (Turning Point Social
Marketing Collaborative et al., 2005).
5. Develop a data analysis and reporting planDuring this step, you and/or the team will determine how the data
will be analyzed and how the results will be summarized, interpreted, disseminated, and used to improve program
implementation (CDC, 1999, 2008).
EX: Standard research techniques were used to analyze the data and develop a report on the findings. The report
was disseminated to the program managers as well as to all partners/stakeholders. Feedback was collected from
stakeholders and, as appropriate, used to modify the strategies, messages and interventions. For example, findings
from evaluating the first two sets of commercials were used to identify the timing of a third set of ads and their
messages. The evaluation results also were used in developing Phase 2 of the campaign (Turning Point Social
Marketing Collaborative et al., 2005).
6. Ensure use and share lessons learnedEffective evaluation requires time, effort, and resources.
Given these investments, it is critical that the evaluation findings be disseminated appropriately and used to
inform decision making and action.
Once again, key stakeholders can provide critical information about the form, function, and distribution of
evaluation findings to maximize their use (CDC, 1999, 2008).
EX: Awareness of the Mens Domestic Violence Helpline increased significantly from none before the campaign to
53% in Wave 2. The research also showed that a number of positive belief and attitude effects began to emerge: By
Wave 2, 21% of respondents exposed to the campaign stated that the campaign had changed the way they thought
about domestic violence and 58% of all respondents agreed that domestic violence affects the whole family rather
than just the children of the female victim. These results and their implications provided guidance for revising future
activities. Phase 2 utilized lessons learned from the first phase and was designed to establish additional distribution
channels for counseling services such as Employee Assistance Programs and rural/remote areas (Turning Point
Social Marketing Collaborative et al., 2005).
What We Know About Evaluation Planning
Bottom Line: Why should I conduct an evaluation?
Experts stress that evaluation can:
1. Improve program design and implementationIt is important to periodically assess and adapt your activities
to ensure they are as effective as they can be. Evaluation can help you identify areas for improvement and
ultimately help you realize your goals more efficiently (Hornik, 2002; Noar, 2006).
2. Demonstrate program impactEvaluation enables you to demonstrate your programs success or progress.
The information you collect allows you to better communicate your programs impact to others, which is
critical for staff morale as well as attracting and retaining support from current and potential funders (Hornik &
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1999). Framework for program evaluation in public health. Morbidity &
Mortality Weekly Report, 48, 1-40.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Introduction to Process Evaluation in Tobacco Use Prevention and
Control. Atlanta, GA: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.
Hausman, A. J. & J. Becker (2000). Using participatory research to plan evaluation in violence prevention. Health Promotion
Practice, 1(4), 331-340.
Hornik, R. C. (2002). Epilogue: Evaluation design for public health communication programs. In Robert C. Hornik (Ed.),
Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behavior Change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hornik, R. C. & Yanovitzky, I. (2003). Using theory to design evaluations of communication campaigns: The case of the
National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. Communication Theory, 13(2), 204-224.
McDonald et al. (2001). Chapter 1: Engage stakeholders. Introduction to Program Evaluation for Comprehensive Tobacco
Control. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/evaluation_manual/ch1.html.
Noar, S. M. (2006). A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: Where do we go from here?
Journal of Health Communication, 11, 21-42.
Norland, E. (2004, Sept.). From education theory to conservation practice. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the
International Association for Fish & Wildlife Agencies. Atlantic City, New Jersey.
Pancer, S. M. & Westhues, A. (1989). A developmental stage approach to program planning and evaluation. Evaluation
Review, 13, 56-77.
Patton, M. Q. (1987). Qualitative Research Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.
Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W., & Freeman, H. E. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Schwandt, T. A. (2009). Toward a practical theory of evidence for evaluation. In Stewart I. Donaldson, Christina A. Christie
& Melvin M. Mark (Eds.), What counts as credible evidence in applied research and evaluation practice? Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Spiel, C. (2001). Program Evaluation. In Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes (Eds.) International Encyclopedia of the Social &
Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.
Turning Point Social Marketing Collaborative, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Academy for Educational
Development (2005). CDCynergy: social marketing edition, version 2.0 [CD ROM] Atlanta (GA): CDC, Office of
Upshur, R. E. G. (2002). If not evidence, then what? Or does medicine really need an evidence base? Journal of Evaluation
in Clinical Practice, 8(2), 113-119.
Yin, R. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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