Prepare an Alpha Numeric Outline

In preparation for your Week 8 literature review, create an alphanumeric outline with relevant comments taken from the 15 (or more) articles you have collected in the previous assignments. Comments will be consistent with what you would use in paraphrasing a paper, including citations with appropriate APA formatting. Tutorials for preparing alphanumeric outlines are readily available through a Google search, including the example found in the Books and Resources for this Week. The alphanumeric outline will follow directly from the material in your annotated bibliography and will serve as the structure for your Signature Assignment in Week 8. Therefore, it must be well aligned to your research topic and subtopics, organized, and logical. This exercise develops the specific text of the main headings and subheadings. Outlines use abbreviated topics, not full text that is useful in the actual paper. Your literature review may be organized differently because it will relate to the particular problem you are studying and its important points and aspects.Length: Outline 3-5 pages, not including the title and reference pages.References: Minimum of fifteen scholarly resources.
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NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY
ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET
Student: Kelly T Garcia
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Garcia, KEDU8001-6
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includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by your instructor.
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submitted or for the entire course. It may also result in academic dismissal from the University.
EDU 8001
Dr. Kelsey
Advanced Scholarly Writing
Develop an Annotated Bibliography
Assignment 6

Faculty Use Only

Running Head: HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Challenges Facing Higher Education Leadership: Annotated Bibliography
Kelly T Garcia
Northcentral University
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Challenges Facing Higher Education Leadership: Annotated Bibliography
Introduction Summary
Leaders are the weapons of winning the war of performance in every organization. In
higher education, leaders are expected to execute their tasks efficiently to ensure that all areas of
the institutions are moving toward the achievement of the overall goals and objectives and
furthering the agenda of excellence. Despite the importance of effective leadership in these
institutions, there exists limited research on the challenges faced by academic leaders. Since the
senior faculty members often get promoted to higher levels of leadership in the firms, they leave a
gap in the academic leadership positions and the ones chosen to replace them face severe
challenges when trying to cope with the underlying issues.
The purpose of the current research is to uncover some of the most debilitating problems
that higher education leaders face and come up with plausible interventions within the
socioeconomic and political constraints of the educational system. It is worth noting that the
challenges occur in a broad spectrum of landscapes in the institutions, such as change
management, maintenance of quality in academics, resources, and response to tensions among
others. To get an informed background of this research area, several scholarly works have been
examined and their insights considered for the advancement of knowledge on the field. For
example, Ramsey & Wesley (2015) provide an extensive discourse on the issue of change
management in the higher learning institutions. Ong (2012) also extensively discusses the
maintenance of quality within the schools and gives an in-depth analysis of the way similar
challenges interact with one another in compromising quality in the education system.
Overall, the current research will traverse across a wide gamut of scholarly wisdom to
establish the main challenges and highlight the current realities and the models that can be
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
adopted to pursue efficient ways of dealing with the problems. The present paper delves deeper
into the topic and discusses the challenges of change management, maintenance of quality in
academics, resources, and response to tensions among others; as well as the most befitting
interventions that would help the management cure these problems.
Annotated Bibliography
Burkinshaw, P., & White, K. (2017). Fixing the Women or Fixing Universities: Women in HE
Leadership. Administrative Sciences (2076-3387), 7(3), 1-14. doi:10.3390/admsci7030030
Burkinshaw & White’s case study seeks to examine the change that needs to be embraced
concerning the challenge of lack of women in higher education leadership. The paper asks
whether the solution would be fixing the women or fixing the institutions themselves.
Women face many issues, and it has been difficult to come up with befitting interventions
aimed at breaking the glass ceiling. Different methods were utilized for the two case
studies conducted by Burkinshaw & White. In the first one, vice chancellors were
interviewed, and the data collected were analyzed through qualitative procedures. The
interviews were semi-structured. In the second study, a quantitative survey was used with
a broader view of the questions, as well as a survey on the mid-career women in
universities but who had aspirations to climb up the management ladder. The sample was
collected from top women leaders in several universities in the United Kingdom. The
paper establishes that there are gendered power relations that have adamantly embedded
the problems in the universities despite the undying attempts to deal with them. It also
finds that the problem rests in the system of the universities and they are the ones that
need to be fixed, not the women. The growing resistance of the women implies that they
are dissatisfied with the systemic masculinities in the university landscapes.
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
The only significant limitation of the study is that it relies on a general point of view
regarding the root of the problems facing women leaders in higher education learning
institutions. All in all, it perfectly fits into the wider topic of challenges facing higher
education leadership since it highlights the issue of gender and systemic masculinity. It
will thus help the current study in uncovering some of the factors that contribute to this
problem. Also, it will make it possible for the recommended solutions to be evaluated in
the pursuit of the most befitting interventions.
Ong, V. S. (2012). Complexities of Multiple Paradigms in Higher Education Leadership Today.
Journal of Global Management, 4(1), 91-100.
Ong’s qualitative article seeks to examine the perceptions of senior-level university
leaders on the challenges facing them, especially the ones that stem from the system. It
asks whether there are specific issues that the leaders feel are the primary sources of their
problems, and in that vein, tries to uncover the factors that may have triggered the
different perspectives held by each of them. The study relies on semi-structured, openended questions which were given to fifteen executives in the field of higher education.
The open questions made it possible for the researchers to collect reliable views from each
of the interviewees since they are held in informal environments and give them full
autonomy, which is believed to be integral in enhancing their comfort. Ong found that the
main issues that the executives felt were pivotal to their problems are institutional quality,
staff motivation, academic freedom, and effective leadership. Consequently, the
understanding of these issues would be vital for any study that focuses on topics related to
higher education leadership from the perspective of the leaders.
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
The primary limitation of Ong’s study is the small sample size. A small size of the
subjects interviewed may pave the way for a nonrepresentational analysis, as well as
subjective deductions. Despite that, the paper is helpful in the current study as it would
help in the examination of the perceptions of the challenges to come up with a clearer
picture of what the leaders believe are the main issues and compare them with the actual
problems yielded by the study itself.
Ramsey, J. R., & Wesley, M. (2015). Leadership Challenges for the University of the 21st
Century. International Journal of Leadership and Change, 3(1), 1.
Ramsey & Wesley’s article focuses on emerging issues in higher education leadership.
Their qualitative research sought to uncover the challenges that have presented themselves
in the landscape of leadership in institutions of higher learning in the 21st century. The
article is founded on a case study that was conducted at the University of Louisville with
an objective of delving deeper into the inherent problems that can only be discovered upon
an intensive examination of each of the major components of the university setting. There
was no specific sample for the research because it was a general case study. Upon the
comprehensive analysis of the University of Louisville strategy of leadership, Ramsey &
Wesley found that some of the primary issues include the redefinition of priorities, change
management, student centeredness, and board involvement among others. The researchers
believe that these problems have consistently undermined the way current leaders in the
university spheres handle emerging issues. Change management, for example, is among
the most effective approaches that propel the administration towards better anticipation of
unprecedented challenges that most leaders may not have faced before.
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Since it is a case study, Ramsey & Wesley’s work does not have significant limitations as
it covers everything within its scope extensively and also tries to explain all key issues that
emerge from the investigation. The findings are indispensable in the current research
because they point out some of the main leadership issues that need to be evaluated
through the lens of the changing environment of higher education institutions. They will
also provide some tangible insights into the failures that the traditional system of
leadership might have maintained for the last centuries, thus leading to the inherent
problems faced by almost all institutions.
Rutherford, A. (2017). The Effect of Top-management Team Heterogeneity on Performance in
Institutions of Higher Education. Public Performance & Management Review, 40(1), 119144. doi:10.1080/15309576.2016.1177559
Rutherford conducts a quantitative study to establish the relationship between topmanagement team heterogeneity and the performance of the higher learning institutions.
The research is founded on the fact that there are mixed hypotheses on the way
heterogeneity affects the execution of duties among such teams, especially in decisionmaking. Rutherford primarily focuses on trying to uncover the manner in which campus
branch presidents would relate to the provosts in the top-level setting, particularly in
situations where the two come from diverse backgrounds. The data for the comparison of
the provosts and presidents was collected from longitudinal datasets from top US colleges
and universities. While 292 institutions had been included in the original research plan, the
data that collected and coded successfully came from 252 of them. Information was
obtained on a wide array of factors such as educational background, previous
employment, dates of service, and demographics among others. Rutherford found that the
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
relationship between top management team heterogeneity varied significantly depending
on the factor of heterogeneity being measured. He established that gender and ethnicity
differences may have positive implications on the performance of the leadership in higher
learning institutions.
The basic limitation of the paper is that it overly generalizes the relationship between top
management by examining only two leadership positions: the president and the provosts.
Therefore, it would be quite difficult to ascertain whether these relationships cut across the
entire landscape of top leadership. Also, the link that was found between the presidents
and provosts may be dependent on other factors such as individual autonomy,
organizational structure, and reputation. All in all, the paper provides a well-grounded
analysis that will play an integral role in the understanding of the remote challenges that
may be directly linked to the performance of leadership in the higher education setting.
Smith, B. L., & Hughey, A. W. (2007). Leadership in higher education—its evolution and
potential: A unique role facing critical challenges. Industry and Higher Education, 20(3),
157-163.
Smith & Hughey conducted qualitative research on the areas of convergence and
divergence between university leadership and leadership in the private sector, as well as
the implications that the relationships have on the pursuit of the most befitting solutions
for the challenges facing the leaders. The methodology of the paper is applied research. It
highlights the most fundamental areas where problems are most likely to stem from due to
the changing nature of leadership in higher academic landscapes. Some of the issues
established include student affairs, teaching and research, and the crisis in academic
leadership.
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
The paper has limited reliability since it conducts a generalized examination of the factors
that cross the entire spectrum of higher education leadership without paying specific
attention to how each of these issues affects particular departments or leadership positions.
However, it provides a tangible ground on the emerging issues in higher education
leadership whose understanding is overly critical in the current study.
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
References
Burkinshaw, P., & White, K. (2017). Fixing the Women or Fixing Universities: Women in HE
Leadership. Administrative Sciences (2076-3387), 7(3), 1-14. doi:10.3390/admsci7030030
Ong, V. S. (2012). Complexities of Multiple Paradigms in Higher Education Leadership Today.
Journal of Global Management, 4(1), 91-100.
Ramsey, J. R., & Wesley, M. (2015). Leadership Challenges for the University of the 21st
Century. International Journal of Leadership and Change, 3(1), 1.
Rutherford, A. (2017). The Effect of Top-management Team Heterogeneity on Performance in
Institutions of Higher Education. Public Performance & Management Review, 40(1), 119144. doi:10.1080/15309576.2016.1177559
Smith, B. L., & Hughey, A. W. (2007). Leadership in higher education—its evolution and
potential: A unique role facing critical challenges. Industry and Higher Education, 20(3),
157-163.
HIGHER ED CHALLENGES: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Additional References
Drew, G. (2010). Issues and Challenges in Higher Education Leadership: Engaging for Change.
Australian Educational Researcher (Australian Association for Research In Education),
37(3), 57-76
Gigliotti, R. A., & Ruben, B. D. (2017). Preparing Higher Education Leaders: A Conceptual,
Strategic, and Operational Approach. Journal of Leadership Education, 16(1)
Hilton, M., & Jacobson, R. (2012). A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education:
Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change. Contemporary Issues
in Education Research, 5(3), 227-232
Kalnins, I., Barkauskas, V. H., & S?ess?kevic?ius, A. (2001). Baccalaureate nursing education
development in 2 Baltic countries: Outcomes 10 years after initiation. Nursing
Outlook, 49(3), 142-147
Madsen, S. R. (2012). Women and leadership in higher education: Current realities, challenges,
and future directions. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 14(2), 131-139.
doi:10.1177/1523422311436299
Mintz-Binder, R. D. (2014). Would hardiness training be beneficial to current associate degree
nursing program directors? Part I. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 9(1), 4-8
Mitic, R. R. (2015). Challenges to Positive Leadership in US Higher Education: Lessons from US
Political Economy. Perspectives on Global Development & Technology, 14(1/2), 278-286.
doi:10.1163/15691497-12341345
Price, P. D., Schneider, D. K., & Quick, L. A. (2016). Financial Challenges in Higher Education:
Community College Leadership Style and Ranking. Community College Journal of
Research And Practice, 40(6), 508-522
Tonini, D. C., Burbules, N. C., & Gunsalus, C. K. (2016). New Models of Hybrid Leadership in
Global Higher Education. Educational Considerations, 43(3), 37
Thompson, S. E., & Couto, R. A. (2016). Creating Problem-Based Leadership Learning Across
the Curriculum. New Directions for Higher Education, 2016(174), 35-44

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