Procter and Gamble/marketing

part AYour post must be at least 1 full page length In-text citations are required to receive credit for academic support. Please use both attachments for part Apart Aread the Management Focus on Procter & Gamble and then answer the following questions:a. What strategy was Procter & Gamble pursuing when it first entered foreign markets in the period up until the 1980s?b.Why do you think this strategy became less viable in the 1990s?c.What strategy does P&G appear to be moving toward? What are the benefits of this strategy? What are the potential risks associated with it?Fyi..the strategy of procter and gramble can fromHill, C., & Tomas, H. (2018). Global Business Today (10 ed.). New York, Ny: McGraw-HillPart bAnswer from your point of view, experiences, opinion and thoughtsCritics of targeted marketing strategies argue that this practice is discriminatory and unfair, especially if such a strategy encourages a group of people to buy a product or service that may be injurious to them or that they cannot afford.For example, community leaders in largely minority neighborhoods have staged protests against billboards promoting beer or cigarettes in these areas. However, the National Advertisers argue that banning targeted marketing constitutes censorship and thus is a violation of the First Amendment.What are your views regarding this issue? Please provide specific supports for your answers.
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Last reviewed: November 2016
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is a leading global household and personal care products company. At one time, it
encompassed nearly two hundred brands but has scaled back to focus on about eighty product lines. Many of its brands
have become household staples such as Tide, Crest, Pampers, and Tampax.
The company, which has headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio, sells products in more than 180 countries. As of its 2016
company report, P&G had approximately 105,000 employees and sales at around $65 billion. In addition, the company
conducts research on numerous products in its laboratories around the globe.
History
English candle maker William Procter and Irish soap maker James Gamble would have never met had they not married
sisters. They combined their business efforts at the suggestion of their father-in-law and officially founded P&G in
Cincinnati, Ohio, on October 31, 1837, with assets of about $7,000.
By 1859, P&G had eighty employees and more than $1 million in sales. The Civil War boosted the company’s growth
when the Union army employed it to supply items to troops. In 1879, Gamble’s son James Norris Gamble, a chemist,
created a white soap, which Procter’s son Harley T. Procter dubbed Ivory. It became one of the company’s best-selling
items.
P&G became the first company to develop a profit-sharing plan, created by Procter’s grandson, William Cooper Procter,
in 1887. The program—which still exists today—gave employees a stake in the company. In 1890, Procter’s son William
Alexander Procter, became head of P&G. He died in 1907, and his son William Cooper Procter became the new head
of the company.
The company introduced the first vegetable shortening, Crisco, in 1911. Four years later, P&G became an international
company with its first plant in Canada. However, by 1920, the company saw a lag in production. Instead of laying off
employees, it changed the way it sold items to retailers. In 1924, the company became one of the first to add a market
research department to study consumer trends.
William Cooper Procter, the last member of the Procter and Gamble families to run the company, stepped down in
1930, and Richard R. Deupree became the new head. In the early to mid-1930s, P&G introduced Dreft, its first synthetic
detergent, and Drene, its first shampoo. P&G celebrated its one-hundredth anniversary in 1937 with sales of more than
$230 million.
In 1945, P&G introduced Tide, which became the top-selling detergent in the United States. During the next few years,
the company focused on developing new products, including shampoos, toothpastes, and cleaning items. Neil H.
McElroy became the new head of the company in 1948. By the mid-1950s, P&G had operations in Asia, South America,
and Europe. It introduced Crest toothpaste in 1955. The new type of toothpaste was made with fluoride, which helped
to prevent cavities.
In 1957, the company purchased paper products company Charmin Paper Mills, further expanding its line of products.
The company introduced Downy fabric softener and Pampers disposable diapers in the early 1960s. It acquired the
Folgers company in 1963—its first food product company. In 1973, P&G expanded to Japan, and Ed Harness took over
the company the next year. By the end of the 1970s, the company expanded into pharmaceuticals.
P&G’s sales reached $10 billion in 1980, and John G. Smale became head of the company in 1981. For the next few
years, the company focused on expanding its pharmaceuticals and personal health care products. It released
Always/Whisper, a feminine product, which became one of the top brands in the world by the mid-1980s. At the end of
the decade, P&G introduced Pert Plus/Rejoice, a two-in-one shampoo and conditioner, and acquired Noxell, which
made CoverGirl and Noxzema products.
The 1990s saw a new leader with the appointment of Edwin L. Artzt and the expansion of products geared toward men,
including Old Spice. In 1992, P&G introduced Pantene Pro-V, which became the fastest-growing shampoo line in the
world. The following year, the company’s sales reached more than $30 billion—with international sales accounting for
more than half. It continued to acquire brands such as Duracell batteries and Tambrands feminine products, and
introduced new products such as Febreze and Swiffer.
P&G underwent major changes in the 2000s and experienced stock declines. A.G. Lafley, the new head of P&G,
promised to refocus the company and by the mid-2000s, it grew by 40 percent, doubled profits, and increased stock
margins. P&G merged with Gillette Co. in 2005. More products followed, and the company continued its global reach.
Lafley retired in 2009, and Robert McDonald became the new head. However, Lafley came back to the company in
2013 to help turn around its sales. In 2014, P&G restructured its product line to focus on its best performers.
One year after David Taylor took the helm as CEO, P&G reported growth once more, which he attributed to a
combination of the renewed focus on consumer favorites as well as innovative new products, such as Febreze air
fresheners for cars. At the same time, its Gillette brand continued to suffer as facial hair continued to remain more in
style amidst fierce competition.
Controversies
In its long history, P&G experienced numerous product recalls, lawsuits, and scandals. Despite these, the company
has survived and continues to grow.
In 1980, P&G had several lawsuits filed against it for its Rely tampons. Courts found P&G negligent of selling a defective
product after the tampons were found to increase the chance of toxic shock syndrome among users. P&G stopped
selling the tampons later that year.
The company received much criticism for testing its products on animals. Over the years, it took efforts to reduce using
animals to test its products, reporting that it had invested millions of dollars to research and develop alternatives. Today,
it uses these alternatives to test more than 99 percent of its products.
In 2011 the European Union fined P&G and competitor Unilever for price-fixing on laundry detergents. P&G paid more
than $200 million in fines for not reducing its prices even though it cut product sizes.
Derived from: “Procter & Gamble (P&G).” Salem Press Encyclopedia. Salem Press. 2014.
Copyright of Salem Press Encyclopedia is the property of Salem Press. The copyright in an individual article may be
maintained by the author in certain cases. Content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv
without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for
individual
use.
Source:
Salem
Press
Encyclopedia,
2015,
2p
Item: 100259286
Last reviewed: November 2016
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is a leading global household and personal care products company. At one time, it
encompassed nearly two hundred brands but has scaled back to focus on about eighty product lines. Many of its brands
have become household staples such as Tide, Crest, Pampers, and Tampax.
The company, which has headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio, sells products in more than 180 countries. As of its 2016
company report, P&G had approximately 105,000 employees and sales at around $65 billion. In addition, the company
conducts research on numerous products in its laboratories around the globe.
History
English candle maker William Procter and Irish soap maker James Gamble would have never met had they not married
sisters. They combined their business efforts at the suggestion of their father-in-law and officially founded P&G in
Cincinnati, Ohio, on October 31, 1837, with assets of about $7,000.
By 1859, P&G had eighty employees and more than $1 million in sales. The Civil War boosted the company’s growth
when the Union army employed it to supply items to troops. In 1879, Gamble’s son James Norris Gamble, a chemist,
created a white soap, which Procter’s son Harley T. Procter dubbed Ivory. It became one of the company’s best-selling
items.
P&G became the first company to develop a profit-sharing plan, created by Procter’s grandson, William Cooper Procter,
in 1887. The program—which still exists today—gave employees a stake in the company. In 1890, Procter’s son William
Alexander Procter, became head of P&G. He died in 1907, and his son William Cooper Procter became the new head
of the company.
The company introduced the first vegetable shortening, Crisco, in 1911. Four years later, P&G became an international
company with its first plant in Canada. However, by 1920, the company saw a lag in production. Instead of laying off
employees, it changed the way it sold items to retailers. In 1924, the company became one of the first to add a market
research department to study consumer trends.
William Cooper Procter, the last member of the Procter and Gamble families to run the company, stepped down in
1930, and Richard R. Deupree became the new head. In the early to mid-1930s, P&G introduced Dreft, its first synthetic
detergent, and Drene, its first shampoo. P&G celebrated its one-hundredth anniversary in 1937 with sales of more than
$230 million.
In 1945, P&G introduced Tide, which became the top-selling detergent in the United States. During the next few years,
the company focused on developing new products, including shampoos, toothpastes, and cleaning items. Neil H.
McElroy became the new head of the company in 1948. By the mid-1950s, P&G had operations in Asia, South America,
and Europe. It introduced Crest toothpaste in 1955. The new type of toothpaste was made with fluoride, which helped
to prevent cavities.
In 1957, the company purchased paper products company Charmin Paper Mills, further expanding its line of products.
The company introduced Downy fabric softener and Pampers disposable diapers in the early 1960s. It acquired the
Folgers company in 1963—its first food product company. In 1973, P&G expanded to Japan, and Ed Harness took over
the company the next year. By the end of the 1970s, the company expanded into pharmaceuticals.
P&G’s sales reached $10 billion in 1980, and John G. Smale became head of the company in 1981. For the next few
years, the company focused on expanding its pharmaceuticals and personal health care products. It released
Always/Whisper, a feminine product, which became one of the top brands in the world by the mid-1980s. At the end of
the decade, P&G introduced Pert Plus/Rejoice, a two-in-one shampoo and conditioner, and acquired Noxell, which
made CoverGirl and Noxzema products.
The 1990s saw a new leader with the appointment of Edwin L. Artzt and the expansion of products geared toward men,
including Old Spice. In 1992, P&G introduced Pantene Pro-V, which became the fastest-growing shampoo line in the
world. The following year, the company’s sales reached more than $30 billion—with international sales accounting for
more than half. It continued to acquire brands such as Duracell batteries and Tambrands feminine products, and
introduced new products such as Febreze and Swiffer.
P&G underwent major changes in the 2000s and experienced stock declines. A.G. Lafley, the new head of P&G,
promised to refocus the company and by the mid-2000s, it grew by 40 percent, doubled profits, and increased stock
margins. P&G merged with Gillette Co. in 2005. More products followed, and the company continued its global reach.
Lafley retired in 2009, and Robert McDonald became the new head. However, Lafley came back to the company in
2013 to help turn around its sales. In 2014, P&G restructured its product line to focus on its best performers.
One year after David Taylor took the helm as CEO, P&G reported growth once more, which he attributed to a
combination of the renewed focus on consumer favorites as well as innovative new products, such as Febreze air
fresheners for cars. At the same time, its Gillette brand continued to suffer as facial hair continued to remain more in
style amidst fierce competition.
Controversies
In its long history, P&G experienced numerous product recalls, lawsuits, and scandals. Despite these, the company
has survived and continues to grow.
In 1980, P&G had several lawsuits filed against it for its Rely tampons. Courts found P&G negligent of selling a defective
product after the tampons were found to increase the chance of toxic shock syndrome among users. P&G stopped
selling the tampons later that year.
The company received much criticism for testing its products on animals. Over the years, it took efforts to reduce using
animals to test its products, reporting that it had invested millions of dollars to research and develop alternatives. Today,
it uses these alternatives to test more than 99 percent of its products.
In 2011 the European Union fined P&G and competitor Unilever for price-fixing on laundry detergents. P&G paid more
than $200 million in fines for not reducing its prices even though it cut product sizes.
Derived from: “Procter & Gamble (P&G).” Salem Press Encyclopedia. Salem Press. 2014.
Copyright of Salem Press Encyclopedia is the property of Salem Press. The copyright in an individual article may be
maintained by the author in certain cases. Content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv
without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for
individual
use.
Source:
Salem
Press
Encyclopedia,
2015,
2p
Item: 100259286

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