project about Hydraulics

HEC-HMS The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS)every things you need in file should be in word or pdf
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HEC-HMS
The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s
Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS)
Summary of Topics – HEC-HMS
Premier Hydrologic Model Today (HEC)
?
Performs RF-RO Calculations for Watersheds
Basic Input and Output Options
Precipitation Options
Unit Hydrograph Options
Flood Routing Option
Creating and Viewing Results and Graphs
The Hydrologic Cycle
P
r
e
1
c
0
i
0
pd i
t
a
t
i
o
n
o
n
39
Moisture over land
l a n
61
Evaporation from land
385
Precipitation
on ocean
Snow
melt
Surface
runoff
Precipitation
424
Evaporation
from ocean
Infiltration
Groundwater
Recharge
Wat
er
t ab l
e
Groundwater flow
Impervious
strata
38
Surface discharge
1 Groundwater
discharge
HEC-1 Program History
HEC-1 – History of Model Development
?
?
?
?
Separate Programs: 1967 by Leo R. Beard
Major Revision and Unification: 1973
Second Major Revision: 1981 (Dam Breach,
Kinematic Wave)
PC Versions: 1984 (partial), 1988 (full)
HEC-1/HMS Program History
Current Versions: 1991, 1998
? 1991 Version Provides Extended Memory Support
? 1998 Version 4.1 is Final Release
HEC “NexGen” Project Begins 1990
(RAS, HMS, FDA)
HEC-HMS – New GUI and Updates
?
?
First Release April 1998
Version 1.1 Released April 1999
HEC-HMS Availability
Available Through HEC Vendors
Available at HEC Web Site:
http://www.wrc-hec.usace.army.mil
“Public Domain” Program
No Copyright on Software
No Copyright on HEC Documentation
Special Training Available
HEC-RAS
12/9/2017
Hydraulic Information – It’s
Important
Necessary for planning,
flood risk reduction,
design, environmental
impact assessment and
mitigation, restoration
12/9/2017
1a-8
Velocity
Depth
Shear
Width
Area
etc
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Hydraulic Parameters
Background – Areas of Hydraulics
?
?
?
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Pressure flow (e.g., closed conduits)
Free surface flow (e.g., rivers and
streams)
HEC-RAS is primarily devoted to addressing
free surface flow; however, it does have
capabilities to consider culverts and limited
abilities to represent closed conduits
Basic Open Channel
Flow Concepts
Classification of Open Channel Flow
?Steady vs. Unsteady
T2
T1,T2
? Uniform vs. Varied
T1
Background – Normal Depth
a.k.a., Steady Uniform Flow
Calculated using Manning’s equation
Q = 1.486/n A R2/3 S01/2
12/9/2017
Background – Critical Depth
Classification of Open Channel Flow
?Flow Regime
Fr = ratio of the inertia force over the gravitational force
Fr < 1 The flow is (1) Subcritical Fr = 1 The flow is at Critical depth Fr > 1 The flow is
Velocity
Supercritical
Hydraulic Depth
acceleration of gravity
V
Fr ?
gD
Where:
V =
D =
g =
Equations for Basic Profile
Calculations
Water surface profiles are computed from one cross section to the next
by solving the Energy equation with an iterative procedure called the
standard step method.
The Energy equation is written as follows:
z 2 ? y2 ?
Where:
? 2V2 2
2g
? z1 ? y1 ?
?1V12
2g
? he
y1, y2 = Water depths cross sections
z1, z2 = Elevation of bed above project datum (e.g., NAVD)
V1, V2 = Average velocities (total discharge/total flow area)
a1, a2 = Velocity weighting coefficients
g
= Gravitational acceleration
he
= Energy head loss
Background – Critical Depth
Specific Energy
Flow Depth (ft)
? Specific Energy is the total of the potential and kinematic energy
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
E?y?
?V 2
2g
(5)
Where:
E = Specific energy
V2
2g
y = Flow depth
y
z = Height above
datum
a = Velocity weighting
coefficients
V = Velocity
0
5
10
15
Specific Energy (ft)
20
25
g = Gravitational
acceleration
Basic Open Channel
Flow Concepts
Specific Energy – Critical Depth
? Critical depth (Yc) is the depth associated with the minimum specific
energy
Dependent on cross section geometry and flow.
18
17
16
15
V2
2g
14
13
Water Surface (ft)
?
y
12
Subcritical Flow
11
10
9
8
7
6
Yc
5
4
Supercritical Flow
3
2
1
0
0
5
SEmin
10
15
Specific Energy (ft)
20
25
Hydraulic Computer Models:
Why do we care?
Direct Measurements: hard,
expensive, dangerous
Analytical: predictive
12/9/2017
Background
One, Two and Three Dimensional Flow
Y direction
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X direction
Background – 1 Dimensional Flow
Changes in flow velocity are restricted to only
one direction (X).
Models readily available
Well understood
Commonly used
12/9/2017
Background – 2 Dimensional Flow
Changes in flow velocity are restricted to only
two directions (X, Y)
Better answers?
Great visualization tool
Accounts for momentum transfer
Use in confluences/complex areas
12/9/2017
Y Direction
Two-Dimensional Modeling
X Direction
Background – 3 Dimensional Flow
Changes in flow velocity occur in three
directions (X,Y,Z)
Data for calibration?
When necessary?
Sophisticated
Computer intensive
12/9/2017
What is HEC-RAS?
US Army Corps of
Engineers’
Hydraulic Engineering
Center
River Analysis System
12/9/2017
The HEC-RAS Modeling System
1D River Hydraulics
Graphical User Interface
Steady & Unsteady Flow
Bridges, Culverts, Dams,
weirs, levees, gates, etc…
Data storage/management
Graphics, Tabular Output &
Reporting
GeoRas – ArcGIS
More coming………
12/9/2017
History of HEC-RAS Development
In the beginning, there was HEC-2 and UNET and
HEC-6, and ……
1D Steady Flow Analysis
?
?
FY 1992 – 1999
Produced Steady flow versions of HEC-RAS (Beta 1&2,
Versions 1.0 – 1.2, 2.0 – 2.2)
1D Unsteady Modeling for River Analysis
?
?
FY 2000 – 2005
Versions 3.0 – 3.1.3
1D Steady and Unsteady Hydraulics. Sediment
Transport and Water Quality Modeling, Version 4.0,
March of 2008
?
Now up to Version 4.1.0 (2010)
1D/2D/(3D?) Steady and Unsteady Hydraulics and
dynamic groundwater, Version 5.0, stay tuned!!!
12/9/2017
?HEC-RAS is software that allows the
user to perform one dimensional
steady and unsteady flow river
hydraulics calculations.
– Public domain and freely distributed
by the Corps of Engineers
– Support available from private
vendors
go to:
www.hec.usace.army.mil/software/hec-ras/
12/9/2017
1-26
What is HEC-RAS?
Graphical User Interface (GUI) – Allows
efficient input of data and evaluation of
output
Data Storage and Management – Provides
ability to create, store and combine data files
containing hydrologic, geometric, and
hydraulic design data into unique
combinations
12/9/2017
What Units Can HEC-RAS Use?
SI units (meters, seconds, etc.)
Units from less-developed countries (e.g.,
“U.S. Customary”)
12/9/2017
RAS Project Schematic
•Existing
•Proposed
•Existing
•Existing +10% Q
•Proposed
•Existing 10yr,
100yr, & 500yr
•10% Increase
•Proposed +10%
Geometry
?
?
?
?
Cross Section
Spacing
Structures
Manning’s n
Flows
?
Calibration Data
12/9/2017
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Culverts
Section
Section
2
3
V2
2g
he n
V2
2g
HW
WSU
hf
HL
he x
TW
Z3
Z2
12/9/2017
Weirs or Dams
Treated as in-line
structure
Can be modeled using
elevation-control or
time-control
Can be controlled with
scripts
12/9/2017
Variety of gate types
Can be modeled using
elevation-control or
time-control
Can be controlled with
scripts
12/9/2017
Gates
GIS Interface
Interface with GIS software for efficient
data input and output display and
evaluation – Identify areas of flood
inundation
HEC-GeoRAS
More GIS tools
12/9/2017
Hydraulic Design Functions
?
?
?
?
?
Bridge scour
Uniform Flow
Stable channel
design
Sediment transport
capacity
Sediment Impact
Assessment (SIAM)
12/9/2017
Sediment Transport and Budgets
12/9/2017
Water Quality (including temperature)
12/9/2017
Graphical
Tabular
Profile
Section
12/9/2017
12/9/2017
From NRCS workshop by Reep, 2004
12/9/2017
From NRCS workshop by Reep, 2004
12/9/2017
From NRCS workshop by Reep, 2004
12/9/2017
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Know what it can do – HEC-RAS
Capabilities
Geometric Features:
Bridge Hydraulics -extensive
Culverts (9 types)
Multiple Opening (bridges & culverts)
Inline Structures – gates & weirs
Lat. Structures – gates, levees, weirs,
culverts, and rating curves
Storage/ponding areas
Hydraulic connections between
storage areas
Pump Stations
Floating ice
Levees
Extensive data import and export
GIS Connections
12/9/2017
Analysis Features:
Steady flow profiles
Unsteady flow simulations
FEMA floodway encroachments
Split flow optimization
Sediment Transport Capacity and
Bridge Scour
Dam and Levee Breaching
Navigation Dam Operations
Channel Modifications
Mixed Flow regime
Extensive Calibration Features
Know what it can do – HEC-RAS
Capabilities (continued)
Graphical Output:
Tabular Output:
Water Surface Profile Plots
Cross Sections
Rating curves
Stage and flow hydrographs
Generalized profile plot of any
variable (I.e velocity)
3D view of river system
Graphical Animations
250+ output variables at every
cross section per profile
Detailed output tables for XS
and all structures
Summary output tables
User define output
12/9/2017
Documentation:
Extensive Manuals
?
?
?
User’s Manual
Hydraulic Reference Manual
Applications Guide
Online Help System
Example Data Sets

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