project about technology

*due on Tuesday 11/21 before 2pm.*this will be a part of the next question that I will post in few days.

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English 102: Writing, Research, & Responsibility in Social Media Culture
Fall 2017
Assignment 19: Writing a 4 Page Research Project Draft
For this assignment, you will be asked to use your mind mapping assignment to begin “drafting
from the middle” of your essay. So rather than starting from the beginning or end of your essay,
you will start from the middle by putting your sources “in dialogue” with each other in a way
that your readers can follow, with you acting as a kind of moderator of this dialogue, the voice
which actively questions, synthesizes, and compares each source’s point of view or idea. Keep in
mind as you build a dialogue, you are working with your sources in order to find something
interesting or useful and which they themselves did not already come up with. You are likely
to have already began this work by making connections through your conceptual map. The next
step is to transform that map into language. If you’re looking for inspiration on just how to do
this at the sentence level, I would invite you to review the They Say/I Say handout on the
opposite side of this assignment sheet. They Say/I Say will help you to set up what you have done
with language in your own draft.
Below I’ve also included a few questions to help get your creativity flowing
• What is the main issue in your research project: the ‘thing’ that your project is primarily
concerned with (you may want to look at the Exhibit Source paragraphs you developed in
class on Tuesday)?
• What opinions, beliefs, and ideas may your audience come in with about your topic?
How are you approaching those?
• How are you going to communicate and approach your audience about this issue, given
their opinions, beliefs, and ideas? (consider your tone, what key terms you need to define
for your readers, how you may want to present this issue to them, etc.)
• What do you want to encourage your audience to think, feel, or believe after engaging
with your research project? It may be helpful remember the whole point of
communicating with someone is for your audience to be informed/transformed in some
way by this act of communication. How do you hope your readers will be transformed by
the ideas you bring to them?
• Also importantly, what do you hope to accomplish in communicating this to others?
What is important to you about your research issue and approaching others (who have
particular beliefs and values) about this topic? How do you yourself hope to become
informed/transformed through this act of communication?
For homework: Drawing from your different sources (including your scholarly ones), draft [at a
minimum] of 4 pages of writing in which you attempt to make connections among your sources’
and your own ideas that are relevant to your own research question.
Please write your research question at the top Assignment 19!
Due: 11/21 to D2L (bring a paper copy of your assignment with you to class)
English 102: Writing, Research, & Responsibility in Social Media Culture
Fall 2017
Excerpted from the book They Say, I Say
Verb tense in MLA
Generally, in MLA, when you discuss cited sources, use PRESENT TENSE (e.g. Smith
believes…). PRESENT PERFECT TENSE can also be used as needed.
Introducing an Ongoing Debate
When it comes to X, most of expert/scholars/researchers will readily agree that __________.
Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of __________. Whereas
some are convinced that __________, others maintain __________.
Templates for Introducing What “they say”
• A number of sociologists have recently suggested that X’s work has several
problems. [The underlined word can be replaced with other nouns appropriate to your
field of
study-researchers, scientists, politicians, feminists, etc.]
• It has become common today to dismiss X’s contribution to the field of __________.
• In their recent work, Y and Z have offered harsh critiques of X for __________.
Templates for introducing “standard views”
• Standard views are views that have become so widely accepted that by now it is
essentially the
conventional way of thinking about a topic.
• Americans today tend to believe that __________.
• Conventional wisdom has it that __________.
• The standard way of thinking about topic X has been __________.
• Many students assume that __________.
THEY SAY: Reporting what authors are saying about a topic
… in MLA [notice the verbs are in present tense]:
• __________, he admits.
• He states, __________.
Verbs for introducing summaries and quotations
Verbs for making a claim:
argue, insist, assert, observe, believe, remind us, claim, report, emphasize, suggest
Verbs for questioning or disagreeing:
complain, complicate, contend, contradict, deny, deplore the tendency to, disavow, question,
refute, reject, renounce, repudiate
Verbs for expressing agreement:
acknowledge, admire, agree, endorse, extol, praise, reaffirm, support, verify, celebrate the fact
that, corroborate, do not deny
English 102: Writing, Research, & Responsibility in Social Media Culture
Fall 2017
Verbs for making recommendations:
advocate, call for, demand, encourage, exhort, implore, plead, recommend, urge, warn
Frame every quotation:
Since quotations do not speak for themselves, you need to build a frame around them in which
you do
that speaking for them. You need to make a “quotation sandwich”:
Introduction, “Quotation” ( ). Explanation.
Introduce each quotation by explaining who is speaking and setting up what the quotation says.
follow up with explaining why you consider the quotation important and what you take it to say.
[The ( )
represents the placement of your in-text citation.]
For introducing quotations MLA:
• In X’s view, “ ” (#).
• X agrees when she writes, “ ” (#).
• X disagrees when he writes, “ .” (#).
• X complicates matters further when she writes, “ ” (#).
For explaining quotations:
• Basically, X is saying __________.
• In other words, X believes __________.
• In making this comment, X argues that __________.
• X is insisting that __________.
• X’s point is that __________.
• The essence of X’s argument is that __________.
DO NOT introduce quotations by saying something like “X asserts an idea that…” or “A quote
by X
says…” Introductory phrases like these are redundant, misleading, and downright confusing.
I SAY: a writer offering his/her own argument as a response to what “they” said
Experienced writers know how to express their thoughts. Since academic writing, broadly
speaking, is a
conversation, college writers need to be able to make their contributions to that conversation
well. Thus,
writers need to be able to assert their own ideas about a topic and use the ideas of others as a
pad for furthering their ideas. Many times the use of “I” is appropriate—in this class, it is!
(However, in
other classes you should check with your professor, just to make sure.)
Disagreeing, with reasons:
• I think X is mistaken because she overlooks __________.
• X’s claim that __________ rests upon the questionable assumption that __________.
• I disagree with X’s view that __________ because, as recent research has shown,
English 102: Writing, Research, & Responsibility in Social Media Culture
Fall 2017
• X contradicts himself/can’t have it both ways. On one hand, he argues __________. But
on the
• other hand, he also says __________.
• By focusing on , X overlooks the deeper problem of __________.
• X claims __________, but we don’t need him to tell us that. Anyone familiar with [this
has long known that __________.
• I agree that because my experience confirms it. This experience includes __________.
• X is surely right about because, as she may not be aware, recent studies have shown that
• X’s theory of __________ is extremely useful because it shed insight on the difficult
problem of
• I agree that __________, a point that needs emphasizing since so many people believe
• Those unfamiliar with this school of thought may be interested to know that it basically
down to __________.
Agreeing and disagreeing simultaneously:
• Although I agree with X up to a point, I cannot accept his overall conclusion that
• Although I disagree with much that X says, I fully endorse his final conclusion that
• Though I concede that __________, I still insist that __________.
• X is right that __________, but she seems on more dubious ground when she claims
• While X is probably wrong when she claims that __________, she is right that
• Whereas X provides ample evidence that __________, Y and Z’s research on
__________ and
__________ convinces me that __________ instead.
• I’m of two minds about X’s claims that __________. On one hand, I agree that
__________. On
the other hand, I’m not sure if __________.
• My feelings on the issue are mixed. I do support X’s position that __________, but I
find Y’s
arguments about __________ and Z’s research on __________ to be equally persuasive.
Signaling who is saying what in your own writing
“I” can be used in well-grounded and well-supported arguments just as those that don’t use “I.”
English 102: Writing, Research, & Responsibility in Social Media Culture
Fall 2017
occasions may warrant avoiding first person (“I”). Overuse of “I” can also result in a
monotonous series
of “I” statements: “I believe, I think, I argue…” It is a good idea to mix first-person assertions
assertions that signal your position without using “I.”
Templates for signaling who is saying what in your own writing:
• X argues __________.
• According to both X and Y, __________.
• Politicians, X argues, should __________.
• Most athletes will tell you that __________.
• My own view, however, is that __________.
• I agree, as X may not realize, that __________.
• X is right that __________.
• X’s assertion that __________ does not fit the facts.
• Anyone familiar with should agree that __________.
• But __________ are real, and are arguably the most significant factor in __________.
Indicate multiple perspectives: “I” versus “They”:
• Point-of-view clues in the text that clearly separates the views of the writer (“I”) from
those of source authors (“they”).
• X overlooks what I consider an important point about __________. My own view is
what X insists
• is a __________ is in fact a __________.
• I wholeheartedly endorse what X calls __________.
• These conclusions, which X discusses in __________, add weight to the argument that
Entertaining objections:
• Notice that the following examples are not attributed to any specific person or group,
but to
“skeptics,” “readers,” or “many.” This kind of nameless, faceless naysayer is appropriate
some (but few) cases.
• Yet some readers may challenge my view that __________. After all, many believe that
__________. Indeed, my own argument that seems to ignore __________ and
• Of course, many will probably disagree with this assertion that __________.
• Here many feminists would probably object that __________.
• But social Darwinists would certainly taken issue with the argument that __________.
• Biologists, of course, may want to dispute my claim that __________.
• Nevertheless, both followers and critics of Malcolm X will probably suggest otherwise
argue that __________.
English 102: Writing, Research, & Responsibility in Social Media Culture
Fall 2017
To minimize stereotyping:
• Although not all Christians think alike, some of them will probably dispute my claim
• Non-native English speakers are so diverse in their views that it’s hard to generalize
them, but some are likely to object on the grounds that __________.
Making concessions while still standing your ground:
• Although I grant that __________, I still maintain that __________.
• Proponents of X are right to argue that __________. But they exaggerate when they
that __________.
• While it is true that __________, it does not necessarily follow that __________.
• On the one hand, I agree with X that __________. But on the other hand, I still insist
Indicating who cares:
(Underlined words can be replaced with other groups or references to certain people)
• __________ used to think __________. But recently [or within the past few decades],
__________ suggests that __________.
• This interpretation challenges the work of those critics who have long assumed that
• These finding challenge the work of earlier researchers, who tended to assume that
• Recent studies like these shed new light on __________, which previous studies had not
• These findings challenge dieters’ common assumption that __________.
• At first glance, teenagers might say __________. But on closer inspection, __________.
Why your claim matters:
• X matters/is important because __________.
• Although X might seem trivial, it is in fact crucial in terms of today’s concern over
• Ultimately, what is at stake here is __________.
• These findings have important consequences for the broader domain of __________.
• My discussion of X is in fact addressing the larger matter of __________.
• These conclusions/This discovery will have significant applications in __________ as
well as
in __________.
So what and who cares:
• Although X may seem of concern to only a small group of __________, it should in fact
concern anyone who cares about __________.

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