Psychology blog entry assignment

??? 3 page Blog EntryIn the blog: Begin with a thesis statement—this statement will take a position on your issue based on your research.At least one non-scholarly source (i.e., newspaper article, youtube video, policy brief, blog, etc.)—this should be different than your psych in the news source. Be sure to briefly summarize what this source is, what information this source provides, and why it is helpful to your understanding of the issue.At least two scholarly source If it is a research study, briefly describe the methods and results. Again, be sure to discuss what information this source provides and why it is helpful to your understanding of the issue. What you learned from all of your portfolio assignments (i.e., psych in the news, expert interview, and your blog), taken together. What the next steps are for the field based on what you have learned? For example- What is left to learn? What are the gaps in the field? What is currently being done? What are some next steps that you suggest?End with a concluding statement that recaps what your thesis is.Tone: Pretend you are describing your perspective on your portfolio topic to your best friend. While you should use casual/simple language, your perspective needs to be back in scientific research—do not rely on anecdotes. Your blog will use the expertise that you have gained to support your perspective on the issue.Work Cited page in APA style.??? All the scholarly sources and all other portfolio assignment required for this assignment (psych in the new and expert interview) are attached below.First 3 attachments are scholarly articles and last 2 are other portfolio assignments.
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Expert-Holder Interview
I choose to interview both an expert and a stakeholder. First, I interviewed a soldier who
happens to be my uncle as well. Parag Ray is an army Sergeant and he has been in the army for
over 7 years. I called my uncle and asked if I can interview him about PTSD. I was hesitant at
first as I thought he would not agree to do this interview. He had faced a lot of difficulties due do
to his traumatic experiences and not everybody feels comfortable to talk about it. Second, I
interviewed a therapist. Omar Kazi is a psychiatric therapist who has more than 6 years of
experience in the field of psychiatry, and has handled numerous cases involving PTSD. I have
personally known him for more than 3 years. The reason I interview both a stakeholder and an
expert is that I wanted to compare their perspectives on PTSD.
I knew that my uncle had experienced trauma but I never knew the cause. I assumed it
was due to his experiences in the war, and part of my guess was correct, but experiences in war
were not the actual reason for his PTSD. When he was an undergraduate student, one of his
friends were badly beaten up in front of him and being unable to help his friend, he went into
depression. Sometimes he had nightmares about the incident but with proper treatment, he was
better. However, when he was in Afghanistan, there was a blast near his tent and again a very
close friend of his was badly injured. Seeing his friend in that state triggered his memories from
before. My uncle explained,” Seeing my friend covered in blood heightened my trauma from 8
years ago. The repetition of the same events, seeing someone you care about to get injured and
you were unable to do anything affected me negatively.” His symptoms included nightmares and
anxiety. Often he would also have difficulty with swallowing food. His treatment consisted of
psychotherapy (verbal therapy) and antidepressant medication. He found the psychotherapy very
helpful. He said,”Even though it was very difficult to talk about, sharing my experience with
someone felt like a burden was off my shoulder.” From our interview, I learned that PTSD is
very common but that does not mean someone can ignore its symptoms. The very first step
should be consulting with a psychiatrist or a primary physician about the symptoms.
After I interviewed my uncle, I wanted to compare his responses with an expert’s, so I
began my interview with Mr. Kazi by asking about the common symptoms and best method of
treatment for PTSD. In his answer, he mentioned that PTSD patients often have flashbacks,
nightmares about the trauma, and it can last for about a week after the traumatic event. However,
in severe cases of PTSD, the symptoms can stay for up to a month which can be fatal as the
patient can have the chance of developing a chronic PTSD. From what I understood, it is the
systematic effect of trauma that makes it worse because the patients often have physical
problems like loss of appetite. He also said that “every patient is different, and what works for
one patient may not work for other, but most of the treatment consists of a combination of
psychotherapy and medication.” According to Mr. Kazi, not every patient is comfortable with
talking about their experiences, opening up about their experience is the hardest part and when
asking why, he replied, “often, patients do not remember the trauma incident in exact details but
that is completely normal” I asked how he handles a difficult case, he said that “the case
becomes difficult when the patient does not want to cooperate and follow the treatment plan. The
very first step should be opening up about the experience to the psychiatrist or the therapist.” I
discussed my uncle’s case with Mr. Kazi and asked if it is possible for symptoms to reappear
after experiencing a similar kind of trauma again. He said it is possible. “Reoccurrence of similar
events can trigger PTSD. Sometimes it’s worse than the first time” replied Mr. Kazi. As a final
thought, he added that many different experiments are being conducted for new medications that
can affect the stress response. Alternative treatments such as yoga and meditations are also being
used to treat PTSD patient. “PTSD should be treated as the mind and body disorder for more
effectiveness,” said Mr. Kazi.
Questions for Stakeholder:
? What is your professional role?
? What kind of trauma did you experience?
? What were the symptoms?
? What kind of treatments did you receive?
Question for Expert:
? What is your professional role?
? What are the symptoms of PTSD and what do you think is the best method of
treatment?
? What should be the first step for a PTSD patient?
? How do you handle difficult cases?
? Is it possible for symptoms to reappear later in life even after the treatment?
? Do you have anything to add to this interview?
Expert-Holder Interview
I choose to interview both an expert and a stakeholder. First, I interviewed a soldier who
happens to be my uncle as well. Parag Ray is an army Sergeant and he has been in the army for
over 7 years. I called my uncle and asked if I can interview him about PTSD. I was hesitant at
first as I thought he would not agree to do this interview. He had faced a lot of difficulties due do
to his traumatic experiences and not everybody feels comfortable to talk about it. Second, I
interviewed a therapist. Omar Kazi is a psychiatric therapist who has more than 6 years of
experience in the field of psychiatry, and has handled numerous cases involving PTSD. I have
personally known him for more than 3 years. The reason I interview both a stakeholder and an
expert is that I wanted to compare their perspectives on PTSD.
I knew that my uncle had experienced trauma but I never knew the cause. I assumed it
was due to his experiences in the war, and part of my guess was correct, but experiences in war
were not the actual reason for his PTSD. When he was an undergraduate student, one of his
friends were badly beaten up in front of him and being unable to help his friend, he went into
depression. Sometimes he had nightmares about the incident but with proper treatment, he was
better. However, when he was in Afghanistan, there was a blast near his tent and again a very
close friend of his was badly injured. Seeing his friend in that state triggered his memories from
before. My uncle explained,” Seeing my friend covered in blood heightened my trauma from 8
years ago. The repetition of the same events, seeing someone you care about to get injured and
you were unable to do anything affected me negatively.” His symptoms included nightmares and
anxiety. Often he would also have difficulty with swallowing food. His treatment consisted of
psychotherapy (verbal therapy) and antidepressant medication. He found the psychotherapy very
helpful. He said,”Even though it was very difficult to talk about, sharing my experience with
someone felt like a burden was off my shoulder.” From our interview, I learned that PTSD is
very common but that does not mean someone can ignore its symptoms. The very first step
should be consulting with a psychiatrist or a primary physician about the symptoms.
After I interviewed my uncle, I wanted to compare his responses with an expert’s, so I
began my interview with Mr. Kazi by asking about the common symptoms and best method of
treatment for PTSD. In his answer, he mentioned that PTSD patients often have flashbacks,
nightmares about the trauma, and it can last for about a week after the traumatic event. However,
in severe cases of PTSD, the symptoms can stay for up to a month which can be fatal as the
patient can have the chance of developing a chronic PTSD. From what I understood, it is the
systematic effect of trauma that makes it worse because the patients often have physical
problems like loss of appetite. He also said that “every patient is different, and what works for
one patient may not work for other, but most of the treatment consists of a combination of
psychotherapy and medication.” According to Mr. Kazi, not every patient is comfortable with
talking about their experiences, opening up about their experience is the hardest part and when
asking why, he replied, “often, patients do not remember the trauma incident in exact details but
that is completely normal” I asked how he handles a difficult case, he said that “the case
becomes difficult when the patient does not want to cooperate and follow the treatment plan. The
very first step should be opening up about the experience to the psychiatrist or the therapist.” I
discussed my uncle’s case with Mr. Kazi and asked if it is possible for symptoms to reappear
after experiencing a similar kind of trauma again. He said it is possible. “Reoccurrence of similar
events can trigger PTSD. Sometimes it’s worse than the first time” replied Mr. Kazi. As a final
thought, he added that many different experiments are being conducted for new medications that
can affect the stress response. Alternative treatments such as yoga and meditations are also being
used to treat PTSD patient. “PTSD should be treated as the mind and body disorder for more
effectiveness,” said Mr. Kazi.
Questions for Stakeholder:
? What is your professional role?
? What kind of trauma did you experience?
? What were the symptoms?
? What kind of treatments did you receive?
Question for Expert:
? What is your professional role?
? What are the symptoms of PTSD and what do you think is the best method of
treatment?
? What should be the first step for a PTSD patient?
? How do you handle difficult cases?
? Is it possible for symptoms to reappear later in life even after the treatment?
? Do you have anything to add to this interview?
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after
someone has suffered any kind of distressful, threatening, or terrifying situation. It is not necessary
for someone to personally experience a traumatic event to develop PTSD. A person can acquire
PTSD just by witnessing their loved ones facing a scary and life-threatening incident. The article,
Post-traumatic stress disorder affects a wide range of people, not just soldiers by Katie Charles
was found on New York daily news under lifestyle category. The article is concentrated on Dr.
Rachel Yehuda’s statements on PTSD. Dr. Rachel Yehuda is specialized in post-traumatic stress
disorder and is the director of the traumatic stress studies division at Mount Sinai, as well as the
director of mental health at the James J. Peters VA Medical Center.
It is often thought by many people that trauma only affects soldiers due to their various
experiences in wars. Dr. Yehuda debunks that idea, and argues that, “It’s a problem that…[affects]
5%-10% of all men and 7%-14% of all women in this country” (par. 2). She also addresses how
the more trauma that people experience, the more likely they are to develop PTSD. Therefore,
trauma and PTSD have a positive correlation. This article is directed to everyone, especially those
who experienced a horrifying event because it explains who is at risk of developing PTSD and
how the patient should seek help. Someone with PTSD may think that they have an incurable
mental problem, but upon reading this article one may feel at ease by knowing that it is common
and anyone can be a victim of PTSD. With proper treatments, even chronic PTSD is curable. One
of the reasons that this article was chosen was because it not only explains what PTSD is or who it
effects, but elaborates on the symptoms and traditional treatments of PTSD. PTSD patients often
have flashbacks, nightmares about the trauma, and it can last about a week after the traumatic
experience. However, if these symptoms continue more than one or two months, it could be very
dangerous, as the patient could develop a chronic PTSD.
The article briefly discusses the research breakthroughs on PTSD. As stated by Yehuda,
“New studies are underway which is treating PTSD as a mind-body disorder. Researchers are
experimenting with medications that affect the stress response as well as alternative approaches
like yoga and mindfulness, with the idea of keeping the body quiet as a way of quieting the mind”
(par. 12). The new researchers are focusing on the person (both physically and mentally) because
people with trauma often face a lot of physical problems due to the “systemic effects of trauma”
(par. 12). Traditional methods of PTSD treatment consist of a combination of psychotherapy
(verbal therapy) or cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medications. The most
difficult part is to open up about the experience to a doctor or an expert because, majority of the
people do not remember the ordeal vividly and often feel ashamed or embarrassed. Consequently,
this articles gives helpful information on how to approach a physician and what questions to ask to
receive the proper treatment.
Although the author did not use empirical research and include all the key concepts of
critical thinking in her article, she did touch some of the key features of critical thinking (i.e. the
term PTSD was thoroughly defined). Additionally, the author used Dr. Yehuda, an expert on PTSD
to support her claim and reasons rather than solely relying on her perspective and anecdote.
Despite the article providing a great deal of knowledge about PTSD, its symptoms, basic treatment
and new research ideas, the article did exclude some information which could make the article an
even better source. The article explains how latest studies on PTSD are treating PTSD as a
mind-body disorder and experimenting with new medications that affect the stress response, but it
does not go in details about these studies. She could include a study where researchers made a
hypothesis and conducted an experiment to test out the hypothesis. The experiment could consist
of one group of PTSD patients given the traditional method of treatment while another group were
given the new form of treatment. There could also be a comparison of effects of yoga and
meditation vs effects of allopathic medications on PTSD. These experiments could be repeated
several times to measure reliability and validity, and data could be collected from the experiments
to come to an empirical conclusion regarding the effectiveness of the methods. Method of
treatments could be the independent variable.
If the article was to be rewritten, some of the recent studies about the treatment of PTSD
would be included. An interview with a cured patient would be used to compare the patient’s
explanations on PTSD with the expert’s. How a doctor approaches a patient when it is too difficult
for him/her to open up, and how that approach is different from other approaches (i.e. when it is
not hard for a patient to open up about his/her traumatic experiences) can also be explored.
Works Cited
Charles, Katie. “PTSD Affects Many People beyond the Military.” NY Daily News, NEW YORK
DAILY NEWS, 14 July 2013, www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/ptsd-affects-people
-military-article-1.1393098
Cogn Ther Res (2017) 41:645–653
DOI 10.1007/s10608-016-9829-2
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Distinct
Posttraumatic (PTSD) Symptom Clusters on Suicidal Ideation
Maria Panagioti1 · Ioannis Angelakis2 · Nicholas Tarrier3 · Patricia Gooding4
Published online: 17 January 2017
© The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Abstract Inconsistent findings have been reported by
previous cross-sectional studies regarding the association
between specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
symptom clusters and suicidality. To advance the understanding of the role of specific PTSD symptoms in the
development of suicidality, the primary aim of this study
was to investigate the predictive effects of the three specific
PTSD symptom clusters on suicidal ideation prospectively.
Fifty-six individuals diagnosed with PTSD completed a
two-stage research design, at baseline and 13–15 months
follow-up. The clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS)
was used to assess the severity of the PTSD symptom clusters and validated self-report measures were used to assess
suicidal ideation, severity of depressive symptoms and
perceptions of defeat entrapment. The results showed that
only the hyperarousal symptom cluster significantly predicted suicidal ideation at follow-up after controlling for
baseline suicidal ideation, severity of depressive symptoms
and perceptions of defeat and entrapment. These findings
suggest that both disorder-specific and transdiagnostic factors are implicated in the development of suicidal ideation
in PTSD. Important clinical implications are discussed in
* Maria Panagioti
maria.panagioti@manchester.ac.uk
1
Division of Population Health, Health Services Research
& Primary Care, University of Manchester, Williamson
Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
2
School of Psychology, University of South Wales,
Pontypridd, UK
3
Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London, UK
4
School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester,
Manchester, UK
terms of predicting and treating suicidality in those with
PTSD.
Keywords Suicidal ideation · PTSD symptom clusters ·
Defeat/entrapment · Severity of depressive symptoms
Introduction
The link between a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicidal ideation is well-established in the
literature (Jakupcak et al. 2010; Panagioti et al. 2009, 2012;
Richardson et al. 2012; Tarrier and Gregg 2004). Suicidal
ideation in PTSD is associated with increased rates of subjective distress and disproportionally heightened rates of
healthcare utilization (Chan et al. 2009; Bell and Nye 2007;
Schnurr et al. 2000). Suicidal ideation is also a strong predictor of subsequent suicide attempts (Miranda et al. 2014;
Simon et al. 2016). Thus, the identification of the best predictors of suicidal ideation in PTSD, which could be targeted by psychological suicide-prevention interventions, is
of critical importance.
Based on previous developments, it has been emphasized
that suicidal ideation in PTSD is potentially driven by both
trans-diagnostic and PTSD specific features (Bolton et al.
2007; Johnson et al. 2008). To this end, important progress
has been made towards understanding the role of generic
(trans-diagnostic) factors that drive suicidal ideation in
PTSD (Blake et al. 1995; Panagioti et al. 2012). In contrast,
the role of PTSD-specific factors, such as distinct PTSD
symptom clusters, in the development of suicidal ideation
is less clear. Demonstrating that specific PTSD symptoms
are strongly associated with suicidal ideation compared to
others has the potential to facilitate the prompt identification of those individuals with PTSD who are at the highest
13
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646
risk for attempting suicide. So far, the studies that investigated the effects of specific PTSD symptoms on suicidal
ideation have yielded inconsistent outcomes. Among veterans, two studies demonstrated that only the re-experiencing symptom cluster was significantly associated with
suicidal ideation (Bell and Nye 2007) and acquired capacity for suicide (Bryan and Anestis 2011), whereas another
study (Guerra et al. 2011) showed that suicidal ideation
was uniquely positively associated with heightened levels
of numbing symptoms. In addition, evidence was obtained
that depression accounts for the impact of PTSD symptom
clusters on suicidal ideation in veterans (Hellmuth et al.
2012). Among community research samples, Ben-Ya’acov
and Amir (2004) showed that suicidal risk was predicted
by high levels of hyperarousal symptoms and low levels
of avoidance/numbing symptoms, whereas another study
showed that hyperarousal and avoidance/numbing symptom clusters were associated with suici …
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