Public Speaking: Giving a Speech

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Reading Worksheet 3
Chapters 13 (Delivery) & 11 (Language & Style)
1. Discuss two concepts from the delivery chapter that were new or interesting to you.
(Please feel free to quote the book or tell me which exact page your concept was on)
What did you think about them?
2. How will understanding delivery help you give a speech?
3. My background is in performance so I LOVE delivery. When you were reading these
chapters, what is something that stood out that you always notice as an audience
member? How will observing other people’s delivery and style help you with yours?
4. What is something you struggle with personally when it comes to delivery? How will
you work on it?
5. Discuss two concepts from the language and style chapter that were new or interesting
to you. (Please feel free to quote the book or tell me which exact page your concept
was on) What did you think about them?
6. How will understanding language and style help you with giving a speech?
7. What was your favorite part of either of these readings?
8. Was there anything in the readings you did not like, did not understand or had
questions on?
STAND UP, SPEAK OUT
S TAND UP, S PEAK OUT
The Practice and Ethics of Public Speaking
Christopher Anderson, Leslie J. Harris, Marnie
Lawler Mcdonough, Josh Miller, Stacey MirvissJossart, Emily Mueller, Megan Orcholski, Kristin
Woodward
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. Adapted
from University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing edition,
2016. This edition adapted from a work originally
produced in 2011 by a publisher who has requested that it
not receive attribution.
Milwaukee, WI
Stand up, Speak out by https://press.rebus.community/
uwmpublicspeaking is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
License, except where otherwise noted.
CONTENTS
Publisher Information
ix
PART I. P UBLIC S PEAKING : S PEAKERS
AND A UDIENCES
1. Why Public Speaking Matters Today
Why is Public Speaking Important?
The Process of Public Speaking
2. Speaking Confidently
What Is Communication Apprehension?
All Anxiety Is Not the Same: Sources of
Communication Apprehension
Reducing Communication Apprehension
Coping with the Unexpected
3. Engaging Your Audience
Ethical Considerations
The Literal and Target Audiences
Audience Analysis
Your Constructed Audience
Conclusion
3
6
16
31
34
41
47
58
58
61
63
65
69
71
80
89
vi
4. Understanding the Ethics of Public
Speaking
The Ethics Pyramid
Ethics in Public Speaking
Free Speech
5. Listening
Listening vs. Hearing
Listening Styles
Why Listening Is Difficult
Stages of Listening
Listening Critically
91
93
98
117
123
125
129
134
141
147
PART II. C RAFTING Y OUR S PEECH
6. Topic, Purpose, Thesis
161
General Purpose
Selecting a Topic
What If You Draw a Blank?
Specific Purposes
Crafting and Understanding Thesis Statements
for Speeches
Conclusion
7. Researching Your Speech
8. Building and Organizing Your Speech
162
181
187
195
203
Determining Your Main Ideas
Using Common Organizing Patterns
Keeping Your Speech Moving
9. The Importance Outlining
227
238
247
257
Why Outline?
Types of Outlines
Using Outlining for Success
212
215
225
259
267
285
vii
10. Effective Introductions and Powerful
Conclusions
291
The Importance of an Introduction
Putting Together a Strong Introduction
Why Conclusions Matter
Steps of a Conclusion
11. The Importance of Language and Style
292
297
303
306
319
Oral verses Written Language
Using Language Effectively
Six Elements of Language
12. Developing Strong Arguments
322
328
342
351
Principles of Argumentation
The Parts of an Argument
Types of Arguments
Counter Arguments
Logical Fallacies: Weaknesses in Reasoning
Conclusion
13. Delivery: A Recipe for Great Speaking
352
356
359
369
374
380
383
How to Effectively Use Your Voice
How to Effectively Use your Body
Types of Preparation and Delivery
Delivery and Audience Connection
14. Presentation Aids
385
394
403
409
415
What Are Presentation Aids?
Functions of Presentation Aids
Types of Presentation Aids
Media to Use for Presentation Aids
Tips for Preparing Presentation Aids
415
418
427
448
458
viii
PART III. T YPES
OF
P UBLIC S PEECHES
15. Informative Speaking
469
Informative Speaking Goals
Types of Informative Speeches
16. Persuasive Speaking
472
482
499
Why Persuasion?
How to Persuade
Types of Persuasive Claims
17. Ceremonial Speaking
501
510
514
523
Functions of Special Occasion Speeches
Types of Special Occasion Speeches
Keynote Speaking
Delivering Your Special Occasion Speech
525
527
538
542
PUBLISHER INFORMATION
Stand up, Speak out: The Practice and Ethics of Public
Speaking is adapted from a work produced and
distributed under a Creative Commons license (CC BYNC-SA) in 2011 by a publisher who has requested that
they and the original author not receive attribution.
The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Libraries
edition builds on the University of Minnesota version
with the following changes and additions to the content:
• The original publication was edited for both
content and clarity.
• Some content was removed or added, but most
chapters remain similar to the original version.
Exceptions include:
Chapter 3: Engaging your Audience and Chapter
12: Developing Strong Arguments. These
chapters were written by Josh Miller. Chapter 7:
Researching your Speech was written by Kristin
Woodward. Chapter 12, Delivery: A Recipe for
Great Speaking was written by Megan
Orcholski. Chapter 16: Persuasive Speaking was
modified from: Tucker, Barbara and Barton,
Kristin, “Exploring Public Speaking” (2016).
Communication Open Textbooks. Book 1.
http://oer.galileo.usg.edu/communicationtextbooks/1
x
This adapted edition is produced by the University
of Minnesota Libraries Publishing through the eLearning
Support Initiative.
[Note from University of Minnesota Libraries
Publishing Adaptation] This adaptation has reformatted
the original text, and replaced some images and figures
to make the resulting whole more shareable. This
adaptation has not significantly altered or updated the
original 2011 text. This work is made available under
the terms of a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike license.
PART I
PUBLIC SPEAKING:
SPEAKERS AND
AUDIENCES
CHAPTER 1
WHY PUBLIC SPEAKING
MA
MATTERS
TTERS TODA
TODAY
Y
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
• Explore the types of public speaking.
• Understand the benefits of public speaking.
• Distinguish between the interactional models of
communication and the transactional model of
communication.
• Understand the basic principles of public speaking.
P
ublic speaking is the process of designing and
delivering a message to a public audience. Effective
public speaking involves understanding your
audience and speaking goals, choosing elements for the
speech that will engage your audience with your topic,
and delivering your message skillfully. Effective public
speakers understand that they must plan, organize, and
revise their material before speaking. This book will help
you understand the basics of effective public speaking
and guide you through the process of creating your own
4
presentations. We will begin by discussing the ways in
which public speaking is relevant to you and can benefit
you in your career, education, and personal life. Then,
we will introduce some of the basic principles of public
speaking.
In a world where people are bombarded with
messages through television, social media, and the
Internet, one of the first questions you may ask is, “Do
people still give speeches?” Well, type the words “public
speaking” into Amazon.com or Barnesandnoble.com, and
you will find more than two thousand books with the
words “public speaking” in the title. Most of these and
other books related to public speaking are not college
textbooks. In fact, many books written about public
speaking are intended for very specific audiences: A
Handbook of Public Speaking for Scientists and Engineers (by
Peter Kenny), Excuse Me! Let Me Speak!: A Young Person’s
Guide to Public Speaking (by Michelle J. Dyett-Welcome),
Professionally Speaking: Public Speaking for Health
Professionals (by Frank De Piano and Arnold Melnick),
and Speaking Effectively: A Guide for Air Force Speakers (by
John A. Kline). Although these different books address
specific issues related to nurses, engineers, or air force
officers, the content is basically the same. If you search for
“public speaking” in an online academic database, you’ll
find numerous articles on public speaking in business
magazines (e.g., BusinessWeek, Nonprofit World) and
academic journals (e.g., Harvard Business Review, Journal of
Business Communication). There is so much information
available about public speaking because it continues to
be relevant even with the growth of technological means
of communication. As author and speaker Scott Berkun
writes in his blog, “For all our tech, we’re still very fond of
the most low tech thing there is: a monologue” (Berkun,
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2009). People continue to spend millions of dollars every
year to listen to professional speakers. For example,
attendees of the 2010 TED (Technology, Entertainment,
Design) conference, which invites speakers from around
the world to share their ideas in short, eighteen-minute
presentations, paid six thousand dollars per person to
listen to fifty speeches over a four-day period.
Technology can also help public speakers reach
audiences that were not possible to reach in the past.
Millions of people heard about and then watched Randy
Pausch’s “Last Lecture” online. In this captivating speech,
Randy Pausch, a Carnegie Mellon University professor
who retired at age forty-six after developing inoperable
tumors, delivered his last lecture to the students, faculty,
and staff. This inspiring speech was turned into a DVD
and a best-selling book that was eventually published in
more than thirty-five languages (Carnegie Mellon
University, 2011).
We realize that you may not be invited to TED to give
the speech of your life or create a speech so inspirational
that it touches the lives of millions via YouTube; however,
all of us will find ourselves in situations where we will be
asked to give a speech, make a presentation, or just deliver
a few words. In this chapter, we will first address why
public speaking is important, and then we will discuss
models that illustrate the process of public speaking itself.
6
WHY IS PUBLIC SPEAKING IMPORTANT?
In this book we are beginning with assumption that
public speaking matters. It matters to our world,
personal lives, and professional lives. Public
speaking is not simply about conveying
information, but it can be a powerful tool for
change. In what follows we will introduce some of
the basic principles and benefits of public speaking.
ROOTS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
The ancient Greeks were some of the earliest people to
write about public speaking because they viewed speech
as critical to a democracy. The Greeks began
studying rhetoric in the 5th century BCE when adult
male citizens had a duty to participate in government
and the courts (Kennedy 1991, p. vii). Some Greek
philosophers were deeply skeptical about rhetoric
because they recognized its power to be used for both
good and evil. However, other scholars, such as Aristotle,
insisted that rhetoric is morally neutral. If people are
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mindful of ethics, rhetoric can be a powerful tool of both
social good and individual benefit.
In his book, On Rhetoric, Aristotle argued that rhetoric
can be divided into three general categories: judicial,
deliberative, and epideictic. In judicial rhetoric
audiences are asked to make a judgement about the past,
and in deliberative rhetoric audiences are asked to make
a judgement about the future. Epideictic rhetoric is not
asking the audience to make a judgement about the past
or future, but instead it can be ceremonial, often calling
for praise or blame.
We can continue to learn from the ancient Greeks.
First, many of the theories of public speaking developed
from the ancient Greeks continue to be applicable today.
For example, we will often return to the concepts of
ethos, pathos, and logos. Ethos refers to the character
of the speaker, pathos refers to generating emotional
responses in the minds of the audience, and logos is about
utilizing strong arguments and logic. Each of these there
elements need to be utilized in delivering an effective
speech, and in later chapters we will discuss each in more
detail. Second, the Greeks considered speech to be part
of what creates and maintains a public. Public speaking
was not an abstract concept. Instead, it was a vital tool
for daily life and necessary to sustain a democracy.
THE PUBLIC
A public is a community of people with shared concerns.
Sometimes we think about a public in terms of nation or
community (people of the United States of America or
Milwaukee), but we can also think about publics as being
organized around shared interests or identities (fans
of Dr. Who, students, or people who support drug
legalization). Furthermore, we always belong to multiple
8
publics at the same time.Through speech, we can create,
shape, and influence publics. We will return to the
concept of a public in the chapter about audience, but it
is important to recognize that part of the reason public
speaking is valuable is because of its relationship to a
public.
COMMON TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
Every single day people across the United States and
around the world stand up in front of some kind of
audience and speak. In fact, there’s even a monthly
publication that reproduces some of the top speeches
from around the United States called Vital Speeches of the
Day (http://www.vsotd.com). Although public speeches
are of various types, they can generally be grouped into
three
categories:
informative,
persuasive,
and
ceremonial/entertaining.
INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
One of the most common types of public speaking is
informative speaking. The primary purpose of
informative presentations is to share one’s knowledge of
a subject with an audience. Reasons for making an
informative speech vary widely. For example, you might
be asked to instruct a group of coworkers on how to
use new computer software or to report to a group of
managers how your latest project is coming along. A local
community group might wish to hear about your
volunteer activities in New Orleans during spring break
or learn about the different approaches to reduce
homelessness in your community. What all these
examples have in common is the goal of imparting
information to an audience.
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Informative speaking is integrated into many
different occupations. Physicians often lecture about
their areas of expertise to medical students, other
physicians, and patients. Teachers find themselves
presenting to parents as well as to their students.
Firefighters give demonstrations about how to effectively
control a fire in the house. Informative speaking is a
common part of numerous jobs and other everyday
activities. As a result, learning how to speak effectively
has become an essential skill in today’s world.
PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
A second common reason for speaking to an audience
is to persuade others. In our everyday lives, we are often
called on to convince, motivate, or otherwise persuade
others to change their beliefs, take an action, or
reconsider a decision. Advocating for music education in
your local school district, convincing clients to purchase
your company’s products, or inspiring high school
students to attend college all involve influencing other
people through public speaking.
For some people, such as elected officials, giving
persuasive speeches is a crucial part of attaining and
continuing career success. Other people make careers out
of speaking to groups of people who pay to listen to them.
Motivational authors and speakers, such as Les Brown
(http://www.lesbrown.com), make millions of dollars
each year from people who want to be motivated to do
better in their lives. Brian Tracy, another professional
speaker and author, specializes in helping business
leaders become more productive and effective in the
workplace (http://www.briantracy.com).
Whether public speaking is something you do every
day or just a few times a year, persuading others is a
10
challenging task. If you develop the skill to persuade
effectively, it can be personally and professionally
rewarding.
CEREMONIAL SPEAKING
Ceremonial speaking involves an array of speaking
occasions ranging from introductions to wedding toasts,
to presenting and accepting awards, to delivering
eulogies at funerals and memorial services in addition
to after-dinner speeches and motivational speeches.
Entertaining speaking has been important since the time
of the ancient Greeks, when Aristotle identified epideictic
speaking (speaking in a ceremonial context) as an
important type of address. As with persuasive and
informative speaking, there are professionals, from
religious leaders to comedians, who make a living simply
from delivering entertaining speeches. As anyone who
has watched an awards show on television or has seen an
incoherent best man deliver a wedding toast can attest,
speaking to entertain is a task that requires preparation
and practice to be effective.
BENEFITS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
Once you’ve learned the basic skills associated with
public speaking, you’ll find that being able to effectively
speak in public has profound benefits, including
• influencing the world around you,
• developing leadership skills,
• becoming a thought leader.
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INFLUENCING THE WORLD AROUND YOU
If you don’t like something about your local government,
then speak out about your issue! One of the best ways to
get our society to change is through the power of speech.
Common citizens in the United States and around the
world, like you, are influencing the world in real ways
through the power of speech. Just type the words “citizens
speak out” in a search engine and you’ll find numerous
examples of how common citizens use the power of
speech to make real changes in the world—for example,
by speaking out against “fracking” for natural gas (a
process in which chemicals are injected into rocks in an
attempt to open them up for fast flow of natural gas or
oil) or in favor of retaining a popular local sheriff. One
of the amazing parts of being a citizen in a democracy
is the right to stand up and speak out, which is a luxury
many people in the world do not have. So if you don’t
like something, be the force of change you’re looking for
through the power of speech.
DEVELOPING LEADERSHIP SKILLS
Have you ever thought about climbing the corporate
ladder and eventually finding yourself in a management
or other leadership position? If so, then public speaking
skills are very important. Hackman and Johnson assert
that effective public speaking skills are a necessity for all
leaders (Hackman & Johnson, 2004). If you want people
to follow you, you have to communicate effectively and
clearly what followers should do. According to Bender,
“Powerful leadership comes from knowing what matters
to you. Powerful presentations come from expressing this
effectively. It’s important to develop both” (Bender, 1998).
One of the most important skills for leaders to develop
is their public speaking skills, which is why executives
12
spend millions of dollars every year going to public
speaking workshops; hiring public speaking coaches; and
buying public speaking books, CDs, and DVDs.
BECOMING A THOUGHT LEADER
Even if you are not in an official leadership position,
effective public speaking can help you become a “thought
leader.” Joel Kurtzman, editor of Strategy & Business,
coined this term to call attention to individuals who
contribute new ideas to the world of business. According
to b …
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