quantitative study on the effects of music therapy

I have the bones of my research proposal done and need help adding to it and making it better. I am curious if that is something you would be able to help me with. It is rough right now and needs help but I have a lot of references already. Please let me know if that is something you do.I am producing a quantitative study on the effects of music therapy on communication skills in adolescents who are autisticAgain it is just bones… in brackets, I have notes to myself for what I still need, I am looking to have it done by 24 hours..i highlighted brackets please check
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Running head: MUSIC THERAPY AND AUTISM
Effects of Music Therapy on Social Skills
in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Brettney Green
Oregon State University
Abstract
1
Running head: MUSIC THERAPY AND AUTISM
2
This paper aims on looking into the effects of music therapy on social skills in children aged 1018 with Autism. It will be a within group study looking at the before and after effects of music
therapy on social skills. The population of students aged 10-18 are from two rural schools both
middle and high schools. Data collected will be measured using a standardized t-test. Limitations
of the study would include the sample being pulled from one rural area.
[All sections need some help]
Effects of Music Therapy on Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
[PLEASE ADD ANY IDEAS ANYWHERE AND OR SUGGESTIONS][In need of an introduction here]
Running head: MUSIC THERAPY AND AUTISM
3
[Research question: What are the Effects of Music Therapy on Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)]
Literature Review
Therapists use music to help facilitate communicative behaviors and social engagement
with those diagnosed with autism. There is a wide set of research that suggests children with Autism show a need for auditory stimuli over other sensory input including taste, smell, or touch
(Simpson & Keen, 2011). In a Chochrane Report by Gold et al. (2006), three studies were selected which compared the use of music to non-music conditions with children under the age of
10 years. The study showed significant results for gestural and verbal communicative skills during music therapy. Whipple (2004) conducted a meta-analysis of nine studies looking at the differences of music to non-music situations with children and adolescents with autism. Results
showed music was an effective intervention. However, Whipple collected most of his data from
unpublished manuscripts. Children with ASD have been shown to have both higher levels of
anxiety and more social worries than both typically developing peers and children with communication disorders not resulting from an ASD (Gillott, Furniss, & Walter, 2001). As the number
of children diagnosed with ASD has increased (Reschke-Hernández 2011). Due to previous literature music therapy is making impact with autistic students creating the need to see if it impacts
ASD students social skills, and if so we should be increasing our number of music therapist.
[In need of more info here and better flow]
Hypothesis/Null
I hypothesis there will be a significant change in social skills in autistic adolescents who undergo
eight sessions of music therapy. The null hypothesis will be there is no significant difference in
social skills for those who undergo music therapy.
Definitions
Running head: MUSIC THERAPY AND AUTISM
4
Music therapy is an established therapy model in which music is used to address the
physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals. Music therapy has many techniques including creating, singing, moving to, or listening to music. Therapist use various types
depending on what best fits the clients (American Music Therapy Association, 2017). “A more
recent definition has been provided by the World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT):
Music therapy is the professional use of music and its elements as an intervention in medical, educational, and everyday environments with individuals, groups, families, or communities who seek to optimize their quality of life and improve their physical, social,
communicative, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual health and wellbeing. Research,
practice, education, and clinical training in music therapy are based on professional
standards according to cultural, social, and political contexts” (James, Sigafoos & Green.
et al. 2015)
[Need to define autism and regulation I need to have for the study, and I need to define what social skills…. need to refine previous research to flow to argue why I am researching what I am.]
Purpose of Research
The purpose of this research is to determine whether music therapy can increase social skills
in autistic adolescents, ages 10-18. [Need help for what else goes here]
Methods
Research Design
Running head: MUSIC THERAPY AND AUTISM
5
This is a quantitative within-group experimental design with a random assignment using parent and self-reporting scales for measurements. The intervention consists of eight weeks of music
therapy, which will take place every Friday after school. The intervention will be given by a licensed professional therapist that specializes in music therapy. The independent variable is music therapy and dependant variable being social skills scores. Based on previous research the hypothesis is adolescents diagnosed with autism will improve their social skills after completing
eight music therapy sessions. The null hypothesis is there is no significant difference between
autistic students that undergo music therapy for six weeks compared to those who do not.
Measures
[Measurements for social skills, and maybe mention what measurements of autism I am using to
select sample here]
Sampling
Inclusion criteria for the population will include: (a) 10-18 years of age (b) diagnosed before
five years of age with autism spectrum disorder (c) no pre-existing acute or serious chronic illnesses. Sample size will be 26 patients (10 female/16 male) recruited from two middle and two
high schools in the Portland school district.
Procedure
Families and adolescents from sample were sent a description of the study and asked to provide their consent.
Data Analysis
Running head: MUSIC THERAPY AND AUTISM
Using a standardized t-test
References
Gillott A, Furniss F, Walter A (2001) Anxiety in high-functioning children with autism. Autism
5:277-286.
Gold, C., Wigram, T., & Elefant, C. (2006). Music therapy for autistic spectrum disorder.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2). Art. No.: CD004381.
James, R., Sigafoos, J., Green, V.A. et al. (2015). Music Therapy for Individuals with Autism
Spectrum Disorder: a Systematic Review. Springer International 2: 39.
6
Running head: MUSIC THERAPY AND AUTISM
7
Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders. Nov 2011, Vol. 41 Issue 11, p. 1507-1514. 8p. 1
Chart.
Kim, J., Wigram, T. & Gold, C. J Autism Dev Disord (2008) 38: 1758. https://doi.org/10.1007/
s10803-008-0566-6
Reschke-Hernández, A. E. (2011). History of music therapy treatment interventions for children
with autism. Journal of Music Therapy, 48, 169–207.
Whipple, J. (2004). Music in intervention for children and adolescents with autism: A metaanalysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 90–106.
Appendix

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