Need 10 draft pages, 6 already written so just add 4 more!!Double Spaced, MLA, Times New Roman 12! Quickly. My writing is like in the provided first page I wrote. Very simple until I revise it I make it amazing. However I don’t need it to be amazing for now just a decent draft.Please add just 4 pages including quotes!Proposal / Outline provided, First 6 pages provided. The picture is what my professor said to add and stuff. The last one is the rubric!! Any better evidence would be excellent. Please help!The picture added was what my teacher said about my intro and what she said to add in the essay. Here’s some sources I would like to use:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951617/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2857807/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15598197https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2906759/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1761861/
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26 September 2017
Research Paper Proposal on Adderall
? Is unprescribed adderall worth the negative health effects on the human brain and body
for success in academics?
? Abuse of prescription drugs like Adderall is damaging the physical and mental/emotional
well-being of college students rather than leading them to success.
Broad public conversation brought up by my question:
? The issue of drug abuse and misuse in academia and other stressful and demanding
Why is it worth examination and research?
? It is an epidemic all over colleges nationwide and leading to serious health issues.
? This drug is a popular and prevalent one and therefore forces us to face the issues of the
legality/ethics of drug use, and, more specifically, prescription drug misuse.
? It is believed to be a major cause of anxiety and depression.
? It is a highly addictive stimulant.
? The legality and ethics of adderall are in the interest of college administrations and
pharmaceutical companies alike.
Consequences of this research:
? Colleges will focus more on drug abuse within their own buildings.
? Well-being of students will overall increase.
? Mental health issues in students will overall be decreased.
? Alternative methods to treat stress and procrastination will be demanded and sought.
? Law enforcement will understand the severity of the consequences of adderall and make
efforts to reduce it as they have major opioids.
? Policy changes will be made to address issues such as prescription drug misuse and the
overly high demands of academia and workplaces that lead to drug abuse.
Who discusses this topic?
? Health Professionals such as psychiatrists/psychologists (in alternative media found in
studies usually online rather than in news or on databases)
? College students
? People suffering from ADHD and other disorders that adderall is produced/prescribed for
? Local news outlets (journals posted online, short tv news segments)
? School/College administrators and staffs (nurses, teachers, administrators)
? Pharmaceutical companies
? Policy makers (FDA)
? The use of unprescribed Adderall among college students isnt worth the repercussions
such as the high risk of addiction, the negative effects on mental and emotional wellbeing, the negative physical effects (such as those on cardiovascular health) and the
negative physical effects of the other drugs Adderall leads to, and the ethical issues it
generates by creating disadvantages for students without access to it.
Definition of adderall and what is used for:
? Adderall is a stimulant that consists of a mixture of four amphetamine salts and is
commonly used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) and
? It is used to increase focus and energy, prevents exhaustion, which in theory leads to
The great issue of adderall abuse:
? Info: In 2015, the most commonly misused subtype of prescription stimulants in the past
year among people aged 12 or older was amphetamine products, which include
Adderall®, Adderall® XR, Dexedrine®, Vyvanse®, generic dextroamphetamine, generic
amphetamine-dextroamphetamine combinations, and generic extended-release
amphetamine-dextroamphetamine combinations. (SAMHSA)
? Among the 5.3 million people aged 12 or older who misused prescription stimulants in
the past year, 4.8 million misused amphetamine products. (SAMHSA)
In 2015, the following numbers of people aged 12 or older used other substances at least
once in the past year (regardless of whether they misused prescription drugs in the past
year): 1.7 million people used methamphetamine. This population is larger than the
amount that used heroin. (SAMHSA)
Is Adderall as effective for academic success as one may think according to statistics?
? Paradoxical introduction starting with statistics on success rates of college students who
use Adderall. Nonmedical prescription stimulant users typically have lower grade point
averages than non-users, suggesting that academically successful students are not likely
to use prescription stimulants non-medically. (Arria/DuPont)
? Should a college student risk his mind and body and risk dependence for potential,
unlikely, success in the future?
First Evidence: Addiction/Effects on mental-emotional well-being
? Adderall causes dependence/addiction
? Compared to non-users, research has demonstrated that nonmedical users of
prescription drugs are more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for dependence on
alcohol and marijuana, skip class more frequently, and spend less time studying
? More than 1 in 4 past year users of Ecstasy (29.0 percent), methamphetamine
(28.9 percent), or cocaine (26.2 percent) misused tranquilizers in the past year.
28.9 percent is comparative to cocaine and ecstasy users (SAMHSA).
? Adderall has emotional consequences similar to depression, and leads to further
? In Tweaking and Tweeting, within many of the common tweets, the most
common substances mentioned with Adderall were alcohol (4.8%) and stimulants
(4.7%), and the most common side effects were sleep deprivation (5.0%) and loss
of appetite (2.6%).
? A four-class model had the best model fit, including (1) participants with low
probabilities for any problematic substance use (Low substance class, 53.3%); (2)
problematic users of all types of prescription drugs (Prescription drug class,
13.3%); (3) participants with high probabilities of problematic alcohol and
marijuana use (Alcohol-marijuana class, 28.8%); and (4) those with high
probabilities of problematic use of multiple drugs and alcohol (Multiple substance
class, 4.6%). Participants in the 4 classes had distinct socio-demographic, mental
health and service use profiles with those in the Multiple substance class being
more likely to report mental health and behavioral problems and service use.
(NCBI) This showed that nonmedical use of Adderall was related to the abuse of
other problematic drugs.
First counter argument:
? If stimulants are so bad then why are prescribed patients doing just fine?
? Adderall when used properly can be found useful. An amazing 81% of students believe
that they are using it for the right reasons which are to be more productive in class and
be more competitive (DMT Addict-help)
? Defense: Negative changes in EE including irritability, emotional lability, sadness,
dysphoria, and tearfulness have been reported in numerous studies investigating
stimulants (amphetamine and methylphenidate) and nonstimulants used to treat ADHD
Second Evidence: Physical Effects of Adderall
? Effects on body organs
? Long-term abuse of Adderall is known to promote liver damage, stroke, seizures
and possible permanent changes in brain mass. Snorting Adderall may cause
sudden nose bleeds, destroy nasal passageways and precipitate serious bacterial
infections in the sinuses (Addict-help).
? Misuse of amphetamine may cause sudden death and serious cardiovascular
adverse effects (Greely).
? Neurocognitive effects
? Stimulants and other drugs proposed as potential cognitive enhancers are known
to create profound state dependence, a phenomenon in which information or
associations learned while under the influence of a drug will later be
remembered or used only when the learner has again taken the drug (Findling).
This will exacerbate dependence/addiction.
? Is it worth it? Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) was linked to lower
grades by the end of the freshman year of college, and this association was mediated by
the effect of skipping class more frequently.
Third Evidence: Ethical/Legal issues
Legal Consequences and the lack of awareness:
? Students are unaware of the risk they are in with the legality of purchasing and selling
? A study of young adults ranging in age from 18 to 28 shows that roughly 40%
were unaware that purchasing, selling, or using prescription drugs without a
prescription had legal consequences.
Adderall becomes an obstacle to success
? A future cant be as successful if your record isnt clean in comparison to a clean empty
? So is adderall contributing to success or preventing it?
Ethics/damage to society
? The disproportionate advantage of the drugs, if effective, would confer on the wealthy
? The issue of lower classes which are dominated by minorities who have less
money/access to adderall competing academically with the wealthy
¦ This could further racial and class inequalities in America, especially if
the drug is made legal when unprescribed
Adderall is a drug that is known and sometimes consumed by college students. This drug
can become addictive to its average consumer. The consumption of Adderall can lead a person to
build a high tolerance and/or an addiction. Furthermore, those who use Adderall without a
prescription experience more negative side effects than people who were prescribed adderall.
The side effects include but are not limited there could be deadly cardiovascular and other
physical and psychological consequences if it is misused or abused, and it would create unfair
advantages in society.
In my research claim, I am hoping to aim at the many who claim adderall is helpful to
society but underestimate the consequences adderall produces. I aim to show that adderall has
terrible side effects when used just to help college students succeed. Everyone wants to be
successful. Success is a prize we have to sacrifice to reach and cannot expect to get by just taking
I chose to side against adderall because I care about the people around me and do not
want to see them addicted or dead because they tried to get success and a perfect life. I chose to
side with college students, because like them, I struggle everyday trying to get my work done.
Everyone wants to be successful. Success is a prize we have to sacrifice to reach and cannot get
by just taking pills.
-Adderall is a stimulant used to help like Red Bull has been used. Similar to adderall, Red Bull
works in a similar way to supply people with the energy they need. Red Bull can do just the same
amount of damage as Adderall but does not keep you up as long as adderall.
-Adderalls physical and psychological effects are negligible and there is not enough research to
prove that it changes cardiovascular health or affects emotional health.
-Only at very high amounts of abuse does the more adderall you take on a day to day basis mean
the higher amount you need to get the same feeling, tylenol is riskier.
? Dependence on adderall increasingly is common even among people who are prescribed
the drug, unlike pain relievers like tylenol, or energy drinks such as red bull. Also
adderall affects your emotional and physical health when abused which makes it much
riskier than red bull and tylenol
? Stimulants, especially amphetamines are known to cause great damage to physical and
psychological health over time, as shown in the above statistics, unlike over-the-counter
pain relievers and energy drinks, which is why legal access to the latter is much easier
? Adderall is misused, when it comes to finding a supplemental product to stay awake. This
product will work but be limited when it is used for educational purposes. How will one
correctly take doses and taper correctly with caution, if it is given to them freely. Also,
these students are probably uninformed about dependency and ways to fight it.
? Unlike drugs such as tylenol and things consumed for energy such as energy drinks or
caffeine, Adderall is often misused with the purpose to help students do better if they
have trouble focusing and this can drastically improve and heighten their performance.
? A sense of discrimination would play a large role in this factor, because not
everyone has the resources to take part in the consumption of adderall. Taking
adderall is sense of cheating because it means that students have an unfair
advantage of being able to focus and stay up all night and not be tired. You can
conclude from that statement that minorities are at a disadvantage when it comes
to receiving resources because a lot of them do not have the opportunity to do so.
? The consumption of adderall should be banned from college campuses everywhere,
because there are many negative aspects of adderall and it is not fair for it to be present.
Addict Help. DMT Drug of healing, controversy and spirituality. 2017. https://www.addicthelp.com/adderall-epidemic-on-college-campus/
Amelia M. Arria. Robert L. DuPont. Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use among College
Students: Why We Need To Do Something and What We Need To Do 2010.
Codrescu, Andrei :the Poetry Lesson Princeton. 2010. Print
(This somewhat of a novel talks about the impact of drugs on young healthy teens and
asks whether educated people in the past took drugs to tell us about them, or took drugs
as a part of their educational path.)
Findling, Robert & Brams, Matthew & Childress, Ann & Lopez, Frank & Manos, Michael & Jensen,
Peter. (2011). Changes in Emotions Related to Medication Used to Treat ADHD. Part II: Clinical
Approaches. Journal of attention disorders. 15. 113-21. 10.1177/1087054710381232.
Greely, H., Kessler, R. C., Campbell, P., Harris, J., Farah, M. J., Gazzaniga, M., & Sahakian, B.
(2008). Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy. Nature,
456(7223), 702-705. doi:10.1038/456702a
Hanson, Carl. Burton, Scott. More. Tweaking and Tweeting: Exploring Twitter for Nonmedical Use
of a Psychostimulant Drug (Adderall) Among College Students 2013. Online Journal.
(Explores the amount of students abusing adderall and how students themselves think
about adderall. Doesnt bring many negative effects of adderall and tells us sleep deprivation and
appetite are the side effects talked about.)
Maahs, Jeffrey. Weidner, Robert. Smith, Ryan. Prescribing Some Criminological Theory: An
Examination of the Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants Among College Students. Minnesota.
2016. Journal Print.
Moore, Elaine : the Amphetamine Debate: the Use of Adderall, Ritalin and Related Drugs for
Behavior Modification, Neuroenhancement and Anti-Aging Purposes. McFarland and
Publishers Incorporated. 2010. Print
(This particular book talks about the positivities of all these stimulants for actual
ADHD/ADD patients who need it. The reason it helps me in my research paper is because it also
talks about the positivities in general of taking these drugs.)
NCBI: Chem LY. Crum RM. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014.
Pomerantz, J. M. (2005). Weighing benefits and risks in managing ADHD. Drug Benefit Trends,
17(7), 317-318. Retrieved from http://proxy.cc.uic.edu/login?url=https://search-proquestcom.proxy.cc.uic.edu/docview/621245344?accountid=14552
SAMHSA: Arthur Hughes, Matthew R. Williams, Rachel N. Lipari, and Jonaki Bose; RTI
International: Elizabeth A. P. Copello and Larry A. Kroutil. National Survey on Drug Use and
(This data shows the severity of Adderall as an issue within the United States, gives data
on the amount of use and misuse of drugs, alcohol, etc.)
Professor Gina Frangello
6 November 2017
Research Paper on Adderall
“In 2015, the most commonly misused subtype of prescription stimulants in the past year among
people aged 12 or older was amphetamine products, which include Adderall or amphetaminedextroamphetamine combinations” (SAMHSA). Adderall abuse, the crazy trend in college leaves
many left in devastation, addiction, and rehab. “No, it’s not that serious,” many may say.
Although many don’t see the effects of the drug instantly on the student, it is present. Adderall is
a stimulant that consists of a mixture of four amphetamine salts and is commonly used in the
treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is used to increase focus
and energy, prevents exhaustion, which in theory leads to better performance. The use of
unprescribed Adderall among college students isn’t worth the repercussions such as the high risk
of addiction, the negative effects on mental and emotional well-being, the negative physical
effects (such as those on cardiovascular health) and the negative physical effects of the other
drugs Adderall leads to, and the ethical issues it generates by creating disadvantages for students
without access to it.
While it is notable that all individuals are susceptible to the addictive features of this drug, it is
noteworthy that most of the individuals that are widely affected are young individuals in
colleges. It is necessary to take note that while the drug may be used for recreational purposes,
the users would usually graduate from the recreational functions to misuse. The incredible health
effects on the users make it necessary to analyze the drug and make recommendations in the
various ways that the society can apply to make sure that the users do not slide down the
dangerous addiction lane.
What makes Adderall abuse such a significant issue?
Adderall is one of the most widely abused amphetamine products in the country. Research from
SAMHSA, indicates that over 4.8 million individuals under the age of 12 abused the substance in
2015. The figures, in this case, are much higher than the number of people who have been
recorded to be abusing substances such as cocaine (Amelia 12). When a substantial amount of a
country’s youthful population is abusing drugs, some problems will arise. For instance, in this
case, the education performance of the children would be affected significantly by the addiction.
Since the future of a country lies in the hands of the youthful generation, the country stands in
danger of stagnating in its social, economic and political development. The country is investing
hugely in the teenagers, and these addiction issues stand to wash away the gains that have been
made by the country in empowering the youths over the last decades.
Is Adderall as effective for academic success as one may think according to statistics?
Recent studies have laid bare some of the devastating effects of the use of non-prescribed
Adderall among students. The study indicates that there is a general trend of poor academic
performance among students who are on non-prescribed Adderall than those who are on
prescribed Adderall and those who do not use the drug. The results of this study are one of the
reasons why the substance must be discouraged among the students. There is glaring evidence
which suggests that individuals who are on non-prescribed Adderall are likely to experience
lower grades than those that are not using the substance or those that are in prescriptions (Arthur
et al 121). Like most addictive substances, Adderall has significant effects on the mental aspects
and psychological state of the students. In such cases, it is inevitable that the substance would
have tremendous effects on the academic achievement of the students.
However, some unscientific statements are being peddled by malicious characters who attempt to
say that the utilization of the substance does not affect the academic performance on the
academic performance of the students. However, that is far from the truth since scientific studies
have demonstrated that the abuse of Adderall has tremendous effects on the academic
performance of the users (Hanson, Carl & Burton 37). As much as it is unscientific and
unproven, some teenagers have used such sentiments to support their consumption of the drug. In
the long run, the individuals have suf …
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