DIRECTIONS: READ/ SKIM THROUGH THE PLAY SCRIPTS THAT I HAVE ATTACHED BELOW AND THEN ANSWER THE QUESTIONS, YOU MAY USE QUOTES FROM THE SCRIPT AND MAKE SURE TO USE SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION TO BACK UP YOUR STATEMENT?1) A RAISIN IN THE SUN:? (a) What question does Lorraine Hansberry raise about the American dream for African Americans in A RAISIN IN THE SUN?? (b) What does Lena mean when she says that her children are so different from her?? (c) Discuss the difference between each of the women in this drama. What do they each want? What is the obstacle to her obtaining it??2) HOW I LEARNED TO DRIVE:? (a) How does the playwright use time in this drama? Be specific.? (b) What do the two central characters have in common? What attracts them to each other?? (c) How does Vogel use non-realistic elements in the play? Describe one.? (d) How does Lil Bit get control of her life? How is this SHOWN/MADE VISUAL in the play??3) SIMPLY MARIA:? (a) How does Lopez use non-realistic elements in her drama? Describe one. (b) What role does culture/ethnicity play in Maria’s life? Be specific.?4) R.A.W.? (a) Why does Son use challenging language in her play?? (b) What is the role of ethnic stereotyping in this drama?
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L O R R A I N EH A N S B E R R Y
A Raisinin the Sun
WALTER LEE YOUNGER (BROTHER)
LENA YOUNGER (MAMA)
The action of the playis set inChicago’sSouth
between World War II and thepresent.
Scene I Friday morning.
Scene II Thefollowing morning.
Scene I Later, thesame
Scene II Friday night, a few
Scene III Moving day, one
An hour later.
The YOUNGER living room wouldbe comfortable
andwellordered roomifitwerenot for anumber
ofindestructiblecontradictions to this stateofbeing.Itsfurnishings
distinguished and their primary feature now is that they have
clearly had to accommodate the livingof too many peoplefor too
many yearsand they aretired.Still,we can seethatatsome time,
a time probably no longer rememberedby the
(except perhaps forMAMA),the furnishingsof this room were actually selected
with care and love and even hopeand brought tothis apartment
and arranged with taste and pride.
That was a long time ago. Now the once loved patternof the
couch upholstery has to fight to show
itself from under
crocheted doilies and couch covers which have themselvesfinally
come to be more important than the upholstery. And hereatable
or a chair has been moved to disguisetheworn placesin thecarpet;
but the carpet has fought back by showing its weariness, with
depressing uniformity, elsewhereon surface.
Weariness has, in fact, won in this room.Everything hasbeen
polished, washed, sat on, used, scrubbed too often. Allpretenses
but livingitself have long since vanished fromthevery atmosphere
of this room.
Moreover, a sectionof this room,for it is not
itself, though the landlord’slease would make itseemso,slopes
backward to provide a small kitchen area, wherefamily
the prepares the meals that are eaten in the living room proper, which
must also serve as dining room. The single windowthat hasbeen
provided for these “two” rooms is locatedin this kitchen area.
The sole natural lightthefamilymay
enjoyin the course
of a day
is only that which fights it way through this little window.
At left, a door leads to a bedroom which
and her daughter,
BENEATHA. At right, opposite,is asecond room
(which in the beginninglife
this apartmentwas probably
the breakfast room) which servesas aWALTER
Time Sometime between World War II and the present.
Place Chicago’s South side.
At rise It is morning darkin the living
on the make-down bed at center. An alarm clock sounds from
within the bedroom at right,and RUTH
enters from that
room and closes the door behind her.Shecrosses
A RAISININ THE SUN Act IScene
the window. As shepasses hersleeping son shereaches down and
shakes him a little. At the window she
Southside morning light comesfeebly.
a pot withwater
and puts it on to boil. She
calls to the boy,between yawns,in a
RUTH is about thirty. We can seethatshe was apretty girl, even
exceptionally so, but now it isapparent
that she expected, and disappointment has
in her face. In a few years,
known among her people as a”settled woman.”
She crosses to her son andgiveshim agood,final,rousing shake.
RUTH: Come on now, boy, it’s seven thirty! (Hersonsitsup at
last, in a stuporof sleepiness.)I sayhurry
the only person in the world got to use abathroom! (The child,
a sturdy, handsome littleboy of ten oreleven,
of the bed and almost blindly takeshistowelsand “today’s
clothes” from drawers and a closetandgoesout to thebathroom, which is in an outside hallandwhichissharedbyanother
family or families on the sameRUTH
to thebedroom door at right and opens it and
callsin to herhusband.)
Walter Lee! . . . It’safter seven thirty! Lemme see you dosome
waking up in there now! (She waits.) Youbettergetfrom
there, man! It’safter seven thirtyItell you. (She waits again.)
All right, youjust go ahead and laythereandnext thingyou
know Travis be finished and Mr. Johnson’ll be inthere and
you’ll befussing and cussing round here likeamadman!And
be late too! (She waits, at the end ofpatience.) Walter
it’s time for you to GET UP!
She waits another second andthen starts to gointo the bedroom,
but is apparentlysatisfied thatherhusbandhasbegunto get up.
She stops, pulls the door to, andreturns to thekitchen area. She
wipes herface witha moist clothandrunsher fingersthroughher
sleep-disheveled hairin effort
housecoat. The bedroom door at right opensand herhusband
stands in the doorway in his pajamas, whicharerumpledand
mismated. He is a lean, intense youngman in hismiddle thirties,
inclined to quick nervous movements anderratic speech habits
and always in his voice thereis aqualityof indictment.
WALTER: Is he out yet?
RUTH: What you mean out? He ain’t hardly got in there good
WALTER (wandering in, still more oriented tosleep than to a new
day): Well, what was you doing all that yelling for if I can’t
even get in thereyet? (Stopping and thinking.) Check coming
RUTH: They said Saturday and this is just Friday and I hopes to
God you ain’t going to get up here first thing this morning and
start talking to me ’bout no money’cause
to hear it.
WALTER: Something the matter with you this morning?
RUTH: NoI’m just sleepy as the devil. What kind of eggs you
WALTER: Not scrambled.
(RUTH starts to scramble
come? (RUTH points impatiently to the rolled up Tribune on the
table, and he gets it and spreads it out and vaguely
front page.) Set off another bomb yesterday.
RUTH (maximumindifference): Did they?
WALTER (looking up): What’s the matter withyou?
RUTH: Ain’t nothing the matter with me. And
don’t keep asking
me that this morning.
WALTER: Ain’t nobody bothering you. (reading the news of the
day absently again) Say Colonel McCormick is sick.
RUTH (affecting tea-party interest): Is he now?
WALTER (sighing and looking at his watch):
Oh, me. (He waits.)
Now what is that boy doing in that bathroom all this
just going to have to start getting up earlier.
to work on account of him fooling around in there.
RUTH (turning on him): Oh, no he ain’t going to be getting up no
earlier no such thing! It ain’t his fault
no earlier nights ’cause he got a bunch of crazy good-for-nothing
clowns sitting up running their mouths in what is supposed to
be his bedroom after ten o’clock
WALTER: That’s what you mad about,
ain’t it? The things I want
to talk about with myfriendsjust couldn’t be important in your
mind, could they?
He rises and finds a cigarette in her handbag on the
A RAISININ THE SUN Act IScene
crosses to the little window andlooks out,smokingdeeply
enjoying this first one.
RUTH (almost matteroffactly,acomplainttooautomatic
to deserve emphasis): Why youalwaysgot tosmoke before
in the morning?
WALTER (at thewindow): Just look at’emdown there . .Running
and racing to work . . . (Heturnsfaces
her a moment at the stove,and then,suddenly) You
this morning, baby.
RUTH (indifferently): Yeah?
WALTER: Justfor asecondstirringthem eggs. Just
it wasyou looked real young again.(Hereaches
crosses away. Then,
drily) It’s gone
nowyoulook like yourself
RUTH: Man, if you don’tshutup andleavemealone.
WALTER (looking out to thestreet
again):First thinga manought
to learn inlife is not to make love to nocolored woman first
thing in the morning.You allsome eeeevil peopleateight o’clock
in the morning.
TRAVISappears in thehall doorway, almost
wide awake now, histowelsandpajamas acrosshisshoulders.He
opens the door and signalsfor hisfathertomakethe bathroom
TRAVIS (watchingthe bathroom): Daddy, come
WALTER gets his bathroom utensils
out to the bathroom.
RUTH: Sit down and have your breakfast, Travis.
TRAVIS: Mama, thisisFriday,
(gleefully) Check coming tomorrow, huh?
RUTH: You get your mind
and eatyour breakfast.
TRAVIS(eating): Thisis themorning
cents to school.
RUTH: Well, I ain’t got no fiftycents this morning.
TRAVIS: Teacher say wehaveto.
RUTH: I don’t care what teacher say.ain’t
I got it. Eatyour breakfast, Travis.
TRAVIS: I am eating.
RUTH: Hush up now and
The boy gives her an exasperated look for her lack of
understanding, and eats grudgingly.
TRAVIS: You think Grandmama would have
RUTH: No! And I want you to stop asking your grandmother for
money, you hear me?
TRAVIS (outraged): Gaaaleee!I don’task her,she
RUTH: Travis WillardYoungerI got too much on me this morning to be
TRAVIS: Mabe Daddy
The boy hushes abruptly. They are
both quiet and tense for several
TRAVIS (presently): CouldI maybego carry some groceries
of the supermarket for a little whileafter school then?
RUTH: Just hush, I said. (Travis jabs his spoon into his
viciously, and rests his head in anger upon his fists.) If you
through eating, you can get over there and make your bed.
The boy obeys
stiffly and crosses the
room, almost mechanically,
to the bed and more orlessfolds the bedding into a heap, then
angrily gets his books and cap.
TRAVIS (sulking and standing apart from her unnaturally): I’m
RUTH (looking up from the stove to inspect him automatically):
Come here. (He crosses to her and she studies his head.) If you
don’t take this comb and fix this here head,(TRAVIS
puts down his books with a great sighof oppression, and crosses
to the mirror. His mother mutters under her breath about his
“slubbornness.”) ‘Bout to march out of here with that head
looking just like chickens slept in it! just
don’t know where
you get your stubborn ways . . . And get your jacket, too. Looks
chilly out this morning.
TRAVIS (with conspicuously brushed hairand jacket): I’m gone.
RUTH: Get carfare and milk money
a single penny for no caps, you hear me?
TRAVIS (with sullen politeness): Yes’m.
He turns in outrage to leave. His
after him as in
A RAISININ THE SUN Act I Scene
his frustration he approaches the door almost comically. When she
speaks to him, her voice has become very
RUTH (mocking, as she thinks he wouldsay it):Oh, Mama makes
me so mad sometimes, I don’t know what to do! (She waits and
continues to his back as he stands stock-still in front
of the door.)
I wouldn’t kiss that woman good-bye for nothing in this world
this morning! (The boyfinally turns around androlls hiseyes
at her, knowing the mood has changed and he is vindicated; he
does not, however, move toward her yet.) Not for nothing in
this world! (Shefinally laughs aloud at him and holds out her
arms to him and we see that it is a way between
them, very old
and practiced. He crosses to her and allows her to embrace
him warmly but keeps his
with masculine rigidity.
She holds him back from her presently and looks at him and
runs her fingers over thefeatures of his
face. With utter gentleness) Nowwhose little old angry man are
TRAVIS (the masculinityand
RUTH (mimicking): Awgaaaaalleeeee, Mama! (She pushes him,
with rough playfulness and finality, toward the door.) Get on
out of here or you going to be late.
TRAVIS (in theface of love,newaggressiveness): Mama, couldI
please go carry groceries?
RUTH: Honey, it’s starting to get so cold evenings.
WALTER (coming in from the bathroom and drawinga makebelieve gun from a make-believe holster and shooting at his son):
What is it he wants to do?
RUTH: Go carry groceriesafter school at the supermarket.
WALTER: Well, let him go …
TRAVIS (quickly, to the
ally): I have
won’t gimmethe fifty
cents . . .
WALTER (to hiswife only): Why not?
RUTH (simply, and with
flavor): ‘Cause we
don’t have it.
RUTHonly): Whatyou tellthe boy things like that
for? (Reaching down into his pants
with a rather important
gesture) Here, son
(He hands the boy the coin, but hiseyes are directedto his
TRAVIS takes the money happily.)
TRAVIS: Thanks, Daddy.
He starts out.
RUTH watches bothof them
with murder in her eyes.
WALTER stands and stares backat her with
reaches into his pocket again on an afterthought.
WALTER (without even looking at his
son, still staring hard at his
wife): In fact, here’s another fifty cents
. . . Buy yourself some
fruit todayor take a taxicab to school or something!
He leaps up and clasps his father around the middle
and they face each other in mutual appreciation;
LEE peeks around the boy to catch the violent
eyes and draws his head backas
WALTER: You better get downnowand get to school, man.
TRAVIS (at the door): O.K. Good-bye.(He exits.)
WALTER (after him, pointing with pride):
That’smy boy. (She
looks at him in disgust and turns back to her
work.) You know
what I was thinking ’bout in the bathroom this morning?
WALTER: How come you always try to be so pleasant!
RUTH: What is there to be pleasant ’bout!
WALTER: You want to know what I was thinking
’bout in the
bathroom or not!
RUTH: I know what you thinking ’bout.
WALTER (ignoring her): ‘Bout whatme and Willy Harriswas talking about last night.
refrain): Willy Harrisis a good-for-nothing
WALTER: Anybody who talks to me has got to be a good-fornothing loudmouth, ain’t he? And what you know about who
is just a good-for-nothing loudmouth? Charlie Atkinswas just
a “good-for-nothing loudmouth” too, wasn’t he! When he
wanted me to go in the dry-cleaning business with him. And
nowhe’s grossing a hundred thousand a year. A hundred thousand dollars a year! You still call him a loudmouth!
RUTH (bitterly): Oh, Walter Lee . . .
She folds her head on her arms over the table.
WALTER (rising and coming to her and standing over her):You
tired, ain’t you? Tired of everything. Me, the boy, the way we
A RAISININ THE SUN Act IIScene
livethis beat-upholeeverything. Ain’t
you? (She doesn’t
look up, doesn’t answer.) So
the time, but you wouldn’t do nothing to help,would
couldn’t be on my side that longfor nothing, could
RUTH: Walter, please leaveme alone.
WALTER: A man needs a woman to back him up …
WALTER: Mama would listento you.Youknowshelistento you
more than she do me and Bennie.Shethink moreofyou.All
you have to do isjust sit down withherwhenyoudrinking your
coffee one morning and talking ’bout things likeyou
(He sits down besideher and demonstrates graphically what
thinks her methods and tone should be.)you
justsipyour coffee, see, and say easy like thatyou been thinking ’boutthat deal
Walter Lee is so interested in, ’boutthe storeand all,and sip
some morecoffee, like what you saying ain’t really that important toyouAnd the next thingyouknow,she belistening good
and asking you questionsand whenIcome
the details. This ain’t no fly-by-nightproposition, baby.Imean
we figured it out, me and Willyand Bobo.
RUTH (witha frown):Bobo?
WALTER: Yeah.You see, this little liquor store
we got inmind cost
seventy-five thousand and we figured the initial investmenton
the place be ’bout thirty thousand, see. That be ten thousand
each. Course, there’s a couple of hundred you got to pay so’s
you don’t spend your
lifejust waitingfor them clownsto let
RUTH: You meangraft?
WALTER (frowning impatiently): Don’t call
just goes to show you what women understand abouttheworld.
Baby, don’t nothing happenfor you inthis world ‘lessyou pay
RUTH: Walter, leaveme alone! (She
him vigorouslythen says, more quietly.) Eatyour eggs, they
gonna be cold.
WALTER (straighteningup fromher andoff):
There you are. Man say to his woman: I got me adream.His
woman say: Eat your eggs.
(Sadly, butgaininginpower.) Man
say: I got to take hold of this here world, baby!And awoman
will say: Eat your eggs and go to work. (Passionately now.)
Man say: I got to change my
life, I’m choking to death, baby!
And his woman say
(in utter anguishas he bringshis fists down
on his thighs) Your eggs is getting cold!
RUTH (softly): Walter, that ain’t noneof our money.
WALTER (not listeningat all or even looking
at This morning,
I was lookin’ in the mirror and thinking about
five years old; I been married eleven years and I got a boy who
sleeps in the living room(very, veryquietly)and all I got to
give him is stories about how rich white people
live . . .
RUTH: Eat your eggs, Walter.
WALTER (slams the tableand jumps up): DAMN
DAMN ALL THE EGGS THAT EVER WAS!
RUTH: Then go to work.
WALTER (looking up at her): See
I’m trying to talk to you
myself (shaking his head with the repetition)and all you can
say is eat them eggs and go to work.
RUTH (wearily): Honey, you neversay nothing new.I listento you
every day, every night and every morning, and you never say
nothing new. (shrugging) So you would rather be Mr. Arnold
than be his chauffeur.SoI would rather be livingin Buckingham Palace.
WALTER: That is just what is wrong with the colored womanin
this world . . . Don’t understand about building their
and making ’emfeel like they somebody. Like they can do something.
RUTH (drily, but to hurt): There are colored men who do things.
WALTER: No thanks to the colored woman.
RUTH: Well, being a colored woman, I guess I can’t help
She rises and gets the ironing board and sets it up and attacks a
huge pile of rough-dried clothes, sprinkling
them in preparation
for the ironing and then rolling them into tight fat balls.
WALTER (mumbling): We one group of men tied to a race of
women with small minds!
BENEATHA enters.She is about twenty, as slimand intense
as her brother. She is not as pretty as her sister-in-law, but her
lean, almost intellectual
face has a handsomeness of its own.She
A RAISININ THE SUN Act IScene
wears a bright-red flannel nightie,and herthick hair stands wildly
about her head. Her speechis a mixtureofmany things;it is
different from the restof thefamily’s
permeated her sense of EnglishandperhapstheMidwest rather
than the South hasfinallyat lastwon out in her
not altogether, because overall of it soft
transformed use of vowels whichis thedecided
Southside. Shepasses through the room withoutlooking at
RUTH orWALTERand goesto theoutside doorand looks,
blindly, out to the bathroom. Shesees that it hasbeen lost to the
Johnsons. She closesthedoor withasleepy vengeanceandcrosses
to the table and sits down alittledefeated.
BENEATHA: I am goingtostart timing those people.
WALTER: You shouldget upearlier.
BENEATHA (Herfacein herhands.She isstill fighting
go back to bed.): Reallywould yousuggest dawn? Where’s
WALTER (pushing the paper acrossthetableto her as hestudies
her almost clinically,asthoughhe hasnever seen
You a horrible-looking chick atthis hour.
BENEATHA(drily): Good morning, everybody.
WALTER (senselessly): How is schoolcoming?
BENEATHA (in the same
spirit): Lovely. Lovely.
And you know,
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