recommendations on how to prevent or disrupt your selected group from attacking the United States homeland

Assignment Instructions For
the final assignment, you will take the midterm and the progress
assignment and combine the two into one seamless. (I attached the midterm and the progress assignment below). In addition
to your first two papers (already provided below), you will make at least three substantive
recommendations on how to prevent or disrupt your selected group from
attacking the United States homeland. Make
sure your recommendations are focused only on the homeland as this is
not a foreign policy or international relations course. Also, make sure
your recommendations address a role for state and local agencies (as we
discussed in week 4). In lieu of an abstract, an executive summary should be included. The
Final paper is due Sunday of Week 8. The completed paper must be double
spaced and follow guidelines (parenthetical citation format) and be
free of typographical, spelling and grammatical errors (see example
paper from the progress assignment). Compliance
with the above directions, quality of your analysis, and the SSGS
Assignment Rubric for 300-400 Level Classes will be used to evaluate
this assignment. Assignment Rubric Assignment Rubric Note on the three paper assignment series:
The first paper (the midterm) is about the group you select and
basically provides a historical perspective about the group. The second
paper (the progress assignment) is a red cell where you put yourself in
the shoes of the terrorist group by thinking like they would to
determine how the U.S. can do intelligence collection on the terrorist
group. For
the final assignment, you will combine all that you wrote in the first
two papers into one seamless document and you will add at least three
recommendations you would provide to a Homeland Security policy maker on
how to counter your selected organization. Be sure to improve your
writing based on feedback you receive from the midterm and progress
assignment. Requirements: Written according to the APA style and format; Use Times New Roman 12 point font; 1 inch margins on all sides Double space all text (no extra lines or spaces after a paragraph or section heading) Executive Summary A
respectable number of credible resources used, cited in the paper as
in-text citations, and included on the reference page. A good rule of
thumb is at least 2-3 scholarly sources per page of content.I attached both papers (midterm paper and progress assignment paper) and course reading material. I will provide additional information in case you need it.


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Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
Introduction and Objective
Terrorist organization ISIL was founded in 1999, as a group that allied itself with al-Qaeda and
even participated in the Iraqi insurgency soon followed by the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western
forces. The terrorist group declared itself as an Islamic Caliphate that reigns over all Muslims in
the world. They follow a Wahhabis doctrine of Sunni Islam and they call themselves the Daesh
in Arabic which means that they are Salafist jihadist militant group (Oriental Review, 2014).
The group has been classified as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, the department of
state, and by many other countries.
They became famous by their televised executions of journalists and aid workers and by the
destruction of cultural and historical sites. According to the UN, ISIL is responsible for many
war crimes, human rights violations and they have been accused of a massive ethnic cleansing on
a great scale in northern Iraq (Swanson, 2015).
ISIL has stated their objective very clearly, they want to establish a worldwide caliphate or
“kingdom” of Muslims in which they control all Muslims, they are currently against any Shiite
type of Islam and obviously against any Christians or Jewish. Therefore, they are to perform
ethnic cleansing maneuvers everywhere they go. Currently they have been only able to invade
some parts of western Iraq and some parts of Syria. Within Syria they have attacked the
government forces as well as some opposition forces, being their objective to overtake all
Muslim nations they take advantage of weak states in order to invade and make their conquest
even larger (Oriental Review, 2014).
Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
How does ISIL form
Isil forms itself as an independent group allied to al-Qaida on 1999 named Jamaát al-Tawhid
wal-Jihad (Organization of Monotheism and Jihad, originally lead by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi,
which pledge full alliance to al-Qaida on October 2004 They had several mergers with other
terrorist groups until on 2006 they finally changed their name to ISI, which stands for the Islamic
state of Iraq.
The ISI or Isil gains true strength when the 2003 Bush administration decides to dispend the Iraqi
army. The normal thing to do after removing Saddam Hussein from power was to just “weed”
out the Saddam Hussein’s loyalist while keeping the army’s structure intact and then retrain them
and re-assign them after the Iraqi government recuperates its strength and organization. Instead
they decided to disband the whole Iraqi army in fears that they would betray the Americans and
this created even a major problem. The soldiers obviously had to look out for themselves and
being of no use to the United States military forces many in the Iraqi army decided to join alQaida and of course its fresh branch which at the time was called the ISI, what happened is that
they even stole the military equipment, such as guns, tanks, trucks and ammunition from the
Iraqi army and used it for the ISI.
The suspicious detail is that originally the United State’s policy was to keep the Iraqi military
intact, but according to some sources this changed when they appointed Bremer, some people
even suspect it was Dick Chaney’s decision but still there is no confirmation as to why the policy
changed (Thompson, 2015). Some analytics even say that if the Iraqi army would have been kept
intact ISIL would not have gained much strengths and its destruction would have been faster.
However, due to the disbandment of the Iraqi army ISIL becomes strong, and truly a deadly
Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
force capable of overtaking whole countries and even establishing their own government and
How does ISIL get its funding
ISIL’s funding comes primarily from stolen oil fields and antiquities. From the captured
territories they control, they take the oil and sell it to the black market to their surrounding
Muslim countries. They also gather capital from extortion, taxation and from the goods they loot
every time they invade a territory. Of course, one can never take out the equation wealthy donors
that see ISIL as an investment opportunity in the black market, but ISIL is more independent
from oligarchs and have their own economy, they have their own schools, hospitals, food
business, police, market and even their own consumer protection agency. They generate
approximately around 1 million dollars a day, their economy is comparable to the one as a failed
state such as Afghanistan or the Democratic Republic of Congo, but as a terrorist organization
they look strong.
The petroleum fields that have been captured in Syria and Iraq are the basic source of funding for
ISIL. While the terrorist do is that they refine oil in small refineries and they ship back the oil by
truck to the Turkish border, there the oil brokers purchase it. Because of the illegality of the
business oil is sold at cheap prices that often fluctuate a lot. It has been reported that traders even
use basic communication systems such as WhatsApp in order to setup the logistics to exchange
products (Swanson, 2015). The sale of oil even results in contradicting situations, such as the oil
sold on the black market by ISIL sometimes ends being purchased by the Syrian regime of
Bashar Al-Asad, which are currently enemies of ISIL.
Isil’s oil business has been weakened by several attacks by the United States, in 2014 the U.S.
reported to having destroyed almost half of the group’s oil refining capacity, also Isil’s capacity
Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
to sell and refine oil has been hurt due to that the engineers and personnel that facilitate these
services have fled the area or end up killed. Even like that it has been reported that Islamic State
leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi is currently recruiting scientists, engineers, and professional
experts to continue the ISIL oil refining operations (Swanson, 2015).
ISIL Operations and threat to the US
The ISIL terrorist organization became famous for its beheadings, specially the one for the
American journalist James Foley. The groups purpose of this any many other beheadings is in
retaliation of for the American drone attacks in their regions. Also, the beheadings are used as a
recruitment technique and as a display of power between the ISIL ranks, in order to assure
obedience within the terrorist’s group forces. The group has also sponsored “lone wolf” attacks
such as the one at Ohio State University by Abdul Razak Ali-Artan which stabbed people and
ran over people with a car, after the attack ISIL praised his actions claiming Abdul Razak
responded to the call of killing infidels or disbelievers in countries the United States (Tognotti,
The group has also expanded operations as wide as the November 2015 Paris attacks in which
bombers stuck in the outsides of State de France in Saint Denis during a football march. Then
this was suddenly followed several mass shootings and a suicide bombing at different
restaurants. Simultaneously some gunmen carried a massacre during the Eagles of Death Metal
concert in the Bataclan theater that lead to an incredible battle with the police, the attackers blew
themselves up when the police tried to capture them. Ultimately, the attackers killed a grand total
of 130 victims, 89 were killed just in the Bataclam theater, and 413 people were injured (Reuters,
2015). Impressively these attacks are considered the worst in France after the second world war.
Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
ISIL claimed responsibility for this attack as retaliation for France’s participation in the attacks
of some ISIL targets in Syria. Franc Hollande declared this as an act of war and declared a threemonth state of emergency in France that banned all public demonstration allowed the police
arrests and raids without a warrant and allowed the shutting down of websites that promoted or
sponsored terrorism (Reuters, 2015). It was later discovered that the attack was planned by a
terrorist cell in Belgium and that some of the perpetrators had entered the country posing as
immigrants. Then on November 15 France launched Operation Chammal, in which they bombed
ISIL targets in Raqqa, soon enough on November 18, they killed Abdelhamid Abaaoud which
was the mastermind behind the attacks.
As we can observe the ISI, lately evolved to ISIL is a militant terrorist group with great
ambitions to control all Muslims in the world. The group considered a collateral production of
Al-qaeda slowly became famous by the terrorist Zarkawi, unfortunately the terrorist organization
instead of disappearing gained more strength after Zarkawi’s death, and after the disbandment of
the Iraqi army they organized and acquired a better structure.
Groups like this pose a danger to the United States and its allies, the group counts with a
sophisticated government, economy and military structure comparable to countries such as
Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Even though the United States and its allies have inflicted damage to ISIL, they are still
operating and remain a strong organization, the major fear is that they infiltrate through
immigrants to Europe and to the United States and that something like what happened in Paris
also happens in the United States.
Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
The groups objective is to establish a worldwide caliphate in which they control all Muslims, the
danger is that their Wahhabis doctrine features psychological operations that attract young
disturbed teenagers and women into joining in. What makes it harder to detect is that pretty
much they turn regular civilians into dangerous terrorist that commit attacks in western countries.
The United States Intelligence agency will have to develop a better strategy in order to keep
weakening these terrorist organizations and prevent a major attack to happen in American soil
Research Paper: ISIL Terrorist Organization
Reuters Staff. (2015) Timeline of Paris attacks according to public prosecutor. Reuters.
Retrieved from
Swanson, A. (2015). How the Islamic State makes its money. The Washington Post. Retrieved
Tognotti, C. (2014). Whats ISIS wants, exactly? The terrorists’ Stated Goal has been made clear.
Bustle. Retrieved from
Yourish, K., Watkins, D. & Giratikanon, T. (2016). Where ISIS has directed and inspired attacks
around the world. New York Times. Retrieved from
Zelin, A. (2014). The War between ISIS and al-Qaeda for supremacy of the Global Jihadist
Movement. Washington Institute. Retrieved from
Reading from week 4
Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Domestic Approach to National Intelligence. Pages 1-24.
Gerringer & Bart. Law Enforcement Intelligence. Pages 321-325 in AFIO’s Guide to the Study of
Steiner. Improving Homeland Security at the State Level: Needed: State-level, Integrated Intelligence
Enterprises. Studies in Intelligence.
Lesson 4: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement and the Private Sector
Welcome to Lesson 4 of Intelligence and Homeland Security. Last week, you examined the intelligence
process and how raw data and information are analyzed to become intelligence. week, you will examine
the critical role of intelligence for state, local, and private sector entities in homeland security.
A great deal of attention is typically focused on the federal government’s role in intelligence activities
and the major changes that occurred in the post-9/11 era. This can create the impression that the
federal government is the only player in intelligence for homeland security, which is not true. State, local
and private sector entities are, by their geographical placement, much more able to gather community
level intelligence that the federal government would likely not otherwise have access to. Also, these
non-federal partners very important customers or users of federal intelligence who need to be apprised
of threats to protect citizens. Successfully gathering and using intelligence to protect the nation is a true
team effort with every player fulfilling a critical role.
Topics to be covered include:
Post-9/11 changes at the state and local levels
National Strategy for Information Sharing and its goals
The role of state and local entities
The breadth of state and local responsibilities
Philosophies of policing
Fusion centers at the state and local level
Successes and challenges facing fusion centers
Post-9/11 Changes at the State and Local Levels
Before 9/11, the domain of national security intelligence was strictly in control of the United States’
Intelligence Community, leaving state and local law enforcement in the dark. Since the attacks of 9/11
and the 9/11 Commission Report that followed, it was determined that the key to prevent another
large-scale terrorist attack within the United States was to bridge the gap between national security
intelligence and local law enforcement intelligence.
New responsibilities of state and local agencies made their officers walk a fine line between protecting
the homeland and protecting the civil rights of its citizens.
“Long-term success demands the use of all the elements of national power: diplomacy, intelligence,
covert action, law enforcement, economic policy, foreign aid, public diplomacy, and homeland defense.”
– 9/11 Commission Report
The National Strategy and Its Goals
While the events of 9/11 made it clear that state, local and private sector entities must become integral
players in national intelligence, no national strategy existed to formally address this issue. To resolve this
disconnect, in 2007 President George W. Bush issued the first National Strategy for Information Sharing.
This strategy marked the first time that the full national vision was articulated into a single document.
Like any good strategy, this is a living document that continues to be updated and reflects the currents
needs and intelligence environment.
The most current version, entitled, National Strategy for Information Sharing and Safeguarding, was
released in December 2012 with the following goals:
Drive Collective Action through Collaboration and Accountability:
The United States can best reach its shared vision when its entities work together, using
governance models that enable mission achievement, adopting common processes where
possible to build trust, simplifying the information sharing agreement development process, and
supporting efforts through performance management, training, and incentives.
Improve Information Discovery and Access through Common Standards
Improving discovery and access involves developing clear policies for making information available to
approved individuals. Secure discovery and access relies on identity, authentication, and authorization
controls, data tagging, enterprise-wide data correlation, common information sharing standards, and a
rigorous process to certify and validate their use.
Optimize Mission Effectiveness through Shared Services and Interoperability:
Efforts to optimize mission effectiveness include shared services, data and network
interoperability, and increased efficiency in acquisition.
Strengthen Information Safeguarding through Structural Reform, Policy, and Technical Solutions:
To foster trust and safeguard our information, policies and coordinating bodies must focus on
identifying, preventing, and mitigating insider threats and external intrusions, while
departments and agencies work to enhance capabilities for data-level controls, automated
monitoring, and cross-classification solutions.
Protect Privacy, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties through Consistency and Compliance Contents:
Integral to maintaining the public trust is increasing the consistency by which privacy, civil rights,
and civil liberties protections are applied across the government, building corresponding
safeguards into the development of information sharing operations, and promoting
accountability and compliance mechanisms.
The Roles of State and Local Entities
While significant overlap exists, local, state, and federal agencies have different responsibilities and uses
in relation to intelligence collection, analysis, and dissemination. Intelligence agencies have typically
been viewed as necessary in relation to the collection of intelligence outside of the United States. State
and local agencies assist federal agencies in the collection of information domestically. The private
sector also plays a role by contributing resources and manpower and participating in reporting of
suspicious activities.
After 9/11
After the events of 9/11 began an evolution in the relationships between federal, state, and local
homeland security, law enforcement, and intelligence organizations. At the federal level, the Office of
the DNI and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was created. Law enforcement and
intelligence became more integrated. Some law enforcement organizations were reorganized in
manners more closely resembling intelligence agencies. The foreign intelligence community also saw
fundamental reform. At the state level, the impact of these changes was even greater. State
governments grew into leading roles in homeland security. Most states responded by bringing together
existing public security, law enforcement, and emergency response capabilities and opening channels to
other states. They also strengthened linkages with federal agencies and sought classified government
intelligence to better inform their efforts to protect citizens.
Before 9/11
Before 9/11, not one state had a significant capability for intelligence nor security clearance to receive
federal intelligence. Now most states and many urban areas have created at least one intelligence cells
in existing structures or new fusion centers. For the first time, state and local homeland security and law
enforcement, and especially the new intelligence organizations, are connected with federal intelligence
agencies through fusion centers located throughout the nation. Also, the federal government invested
the time and resources to give select state and local officials security clearances to be able to receive
classified federal intelligence.
The Breath of State and Local Responsibilities
With the United States’ newly recognized need for state and local support, state law enforcement
agencies to focus on homeland security and not just common crimes. In addition to the need to collect,
analyze, and share critical information and intelligence, they recognized the need for protection of
critical infrastructure and intelligence that might come as a result of threats of attack on the critical
infrastructure they were tasked with protecting.
State and local law enforcement agencies investigate crime that could possibly be used as a …
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