Research Methodology using Harvard-coventry referencing style

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Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction:
The methodology is a means to solve the problem purely and systematically and the researcher
should know the methods of research systematic inclusion and know how to develop indicators or
tests and the calculation of the average or deviation standard with the application of specific
technologies. The research in this chapter includes: research methodology, design, study
community, sampling using technology, sample size, data collection, data analysis tools, honesty
and consistency testing, legal, ethical and social aspects.
Research Methodology includes Prepare questions, required data from participants gather,
Qualitative and quantitative, Primary and secondary data used the statistic tools such as design and
chart, Analyze the data and find true.
3.1.2 Methodology of the study:
Methodology of the study: is the current methodological study, which is commensurate with the
nature of the problem of the study and question. Quantitative approach helps the researcher to
achieve the goal of the study by collecting data from the target group.
3.2 Research Design:
Research design is a strategy, plan and structure to get answers to questions related to searching
the search problem. The research plan is a complete plan and includes what the researcher is doing
from writing the hypotheses and analyzing the final data (Kerlinger, 1986).
Traditional research design is a detailed plan to conduct research and complete operational
variables, sample selection and data collection in order to test hypotheses and analyze results
(Thyer, 1993).
The design of the research depends on the plan adopted by the researcher to answer the questions
correctly and in an objective and accurate manner accordingly to( Selltiz , Deutsch and Cook).
Through research design you have to decide for yourself and communicate to others your decisions
about what the study design is for you suggested use, how you are going to gather information
from your respondents, and how you are going to select respondents, how the information you are
going to collect is to be analyzed and how you are go to communicate your results. In addition,
you will need details in your search design. Literature reviews you also need to make sure of
yourself and others that the road you suggested will results are valid and reliable.
The researcher sent the link of the questionnaire website through e-mails and telephone to reach
all employees of the Ministry of Civil Service Electronic Training Section .It includes the objective
link of the study, the education to complete the questionnaire, the confidentiality of the data
collected. Participants were asked to inquire about any questionnaire about completing the
questionnaire for 40 participants, so the researcher sent follow-up e-mails and a letter to encourage
employees to complete the questionnaire, increasing the rate of respondents to 91 respondents.
After collecting the data, the statistical analysis program was used to analyze the data. The choice
of statistical treatment was based on the objective of the study as follows:
? Alpha Cronbach was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire.
? Frequency and percentages to explain the sample distribution of the study.
? Standard methods and concepts were used to measure respondents’ responses related to
questionnaire items, ranging from (1-5).
? Use T-Test to measure differences between male and female views about online training.
3.3 Population of the study:
In the current study, (60) sample of the employees were selected and includes (20) females (40)
male members who teach in the Ministry of Civil Service and some government agencies and
specialists in electronic training. The questionnaire will be distributed to them for packaging and
re-transmission by e-mail.
3.4 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size:
3.4.1 Sampling Techniques:
Sampling techniques are defined as “the planned selection of a number of samples which will
provide you with the data and then summarize them and deduce them for a larger set” (Thomson,
2005). Use random samples in the study to collect data from the target. Sample selection Cause of
problem due to lack of time and difficulty Find the staff on time to complete the questionnaire, but
the researcher tried to reach 45% of the total target and distributed (90) questionnaires, which
caused concern to the researcher of some variation in the sample.
3.4.2 Sample size:
Despite the researcher’s concern during receiving the questionnaire distributed to the target
number, the questionnaires were (60) .The researcher tried best to obtain all the questionnaires
distributed but the time constraint is limited to apply, and the following table shows that:
3.5 Search tool and test reliability or validity:
In this study, a questionnaire was used to collect the required data and the questionnaire was
developed by the researcher. Due to the difficulty of finding a ready model that fits the study
3.5.1 Questionnaire:
Questionnaire is a list of questions that participants will record or answer. The difference between
the questionnaire table and the interview is that by the answer, no one explains the meaning of the
questions. It is important that the questions are clear and easy to understand. In contrast, the
researcher asks questions and explains them to the target audience. The questionnaire should be
easy to read and enjoyable for the eye. The questions should be sequential and easy to follow, and
the questionnaire should be developed in an interactive manner. This will make participants feel
as if someone is talking to them. Share with hesitation and shyness and follow the path of
interactive questions.
Likert scale was used with an open survey questionnaire to collect data with five alternatives (
Yes, No, strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly agree).
The questionnaire can be done in two ways and each one will be explained as follows:
? The mailed questionnaire: The questionnaire sent is the most common by e-mail to collect
information and must be accompanied by a response and a cover letter such as (see below
for details).
? Collective administration: is also one of the best ways to manage the questionnaire
because it is at the public level, such as students in a classroom or staff in a particular
department. This ensures high response rate and the fastest way to collect data. The
researcher can use a training program or a meeting to distribute the questionnaire to all
attendees and take their time in minutes, for example, and the questions are understandable
and easy and everyone can answer them on time and get the information in a very short
Selection process between questionnaire and interview:
Choice among them is necessary and very important and should consider the strengths and
weaknesses of the two methods as they can affect the validity of the data and results. The selection
of social and economic characteristics of the study population because they are the target of choice
and there are criteria to be based on is as follows:
The nature of the investigation: depends on the nature of the study, which the researcher
to verify and discuss with the target, as some studies may feel the respondents in the
frequency and anonymity of the cases such as drugs, crime and financial personal. The
nature of the questions varies according to the objectives of the study, which the researcher
collects information.
Geographical distribution of the population Study: If the target population is dispersed
over large geographic areas, it is difficult to conduct a questionnaire or personal interview
due to geographical conditions and will be too expensive.
Type of study community: If the target audience in my mother’s community is not reading
and does not write, then the work of the questionnaire is questioned and the choice of
interviewing is the best.
3.5.2 Why you chose a Questioner:
The questionnaire method was adopted because it is more appropriate and appropriate in this study
to collect data for a large number of target (civil servants). The survey method is quick and
objective. The questionnaire is less expensive and more convenient to compare with other
methods. It allows the participant to complete it at all times of their free time.
3.5.3 Advantages and disadvantage of Questionnaires:
Advantage of questionnaire:
Less expensive: the advantage of it is less expensive in terms of financial and human time
and effort and thus the use of the questionnaire is more appropriate, especially if collected
collectively to collect data.
Privacy: When we use the questionnaire, there is no face-to-face interview between the
respondents and the researcher and gives them the freedom to answer without hesitation,
sometimes the questions are sensitive such as age or gender and the respondent is in a
sensitive situation and does not want to answer and the questionnaire is more appropriate
and effective and consequently this will help to increase The possibility of obtaining
accurate information.
Disadvantages of a questionnaire:
The application is limited: The disadvantages of the questionnaire are that it is limited to
a specific group or group of target users who can read and write only. In some areas, there
are some samples that have a written or visual impairment and will be an obstacle to them.
Low response rate: If the researcher decided to work on the questionnaire, it is true that
not all respondents will repeat their questionnaire and thus decrease the sample size. The
response rate depends on factors such as sample interest in the study topic and the length
of time taken in the questionnaire. When planning targeting 50% of the response rate is
sometimes up to 30%.
Self-Selection bias: Not everyone who receives the questionnaire will return because some
of the targets differ in their characteristics and motivations. Therefore, the response rate is
affected by the decline and the results may not be representative of all the participants in
the study.
Differences of understanding: Some respondents differ in understanding the questions
addressed to them and following the interpretation of some of them to answer the questions
will affect the quality of the information provided.
Advantages of the interview:
Suitable for complex situations: The interview is best suited to the study of complex and
sensitive cases. The interview provides an opportunity to ask the most sensitive questions
and explain them in detail.
Completion of the information: The interview enables the researcher to complete the
information collected and to identify the nonverbal responses
Interpreting the questions: The interview face to face is the best clarity in understanding
the questions and explain them, the question may be misinterpreted.
Inclusiveness: The interview is broader and can include all categories of children, the
disabled, the illiterate or the elderly.
Disadvantages of the interview:
More expensive: The interview takes time and high costs, especially in the case of the
spread of targets in large geographical areas and this will be more expense and time, for
example, those in Muscat and Salalah distance of about 1000 kilometers.
Data quality: The quality of the data depends on the quality of the interaction. In the
interview, interaction between the interviewer and the interviewer is likely to affect the
quality of the information collected by the bag. The data vary according to the interviewer’s
awareness and the quality of the data is influenced by the experience, skills and
commitment of the interview.
3.5.4 Validity and reliability:
Validity is very important to evaluate the stability of the questionnaire (Campell, 1979). Cook and
Campbell say it is the best way to reach reality and recommendation or conclusion there are 4
1. Content validity.
2. Termination of validity.
3. Building authority.
4. External validity.
In this task, the validity of the content was used, and because of the suitability of the questionnaire
to collect information, the questionnaire was appropriately designed and sent to a committee to
promote the content of the questionnaire.
Reliability is the verification of the reliability of the questionnaire and is a second step in the
development of the questionnaire, which is the degree of the tool in which the method of checking
the reliability of the questionnaire is measured by testing 15 employees in the Ministry of Civil
Service Electronic Training Section. The data is encoded in the SPACE and Alpha Kronbach
program used. The results showed that the questionnaire was valid with (942). This means that
you are using SPACE to analyze your data.
3.5.5 How to ask question:
3.5.6 Open Question: The questionnaire includes an open question that gives respondents a more
in-depth answer to the electronic training of information and to verify their view of the program
more deeply
3.5.7 Closed Question: A closed question is asked in the questionnaire to verify their views on
E-training according to pre-set study goals. The question relates to quotas defined in the framework
of the objectives to gather information more accurately and the nature of closed questions that
allow for divergent opinions by analyzing the responses statistically.
3.6 Data Collection Techniques:
Data collection is done through primary and secondary toxic sources where primary sources are
based on data collected by the researcher or others who cooperate with the researcher such as the
target or respondent. Secondary data are based on information obtained during the data collection
process from several different sources, whether quantitative data or qualitative data.
Methods of data collection in quantitative and qualitative research:
3.6.1 Preliminary data:
Primary data are used to obtain the information sought by the researcher and to verify the research
objectives through surveys and questionnaire. This type of primary data is used when collecting
data that has been published by the target or target audience, and often these data are original and
are directly related to the subject matter of the study. Methods can be used to collect primary data
according to the purpose of the study subject and available resources and also depends on the
researcher’s skills that help to verify the study objectives. Lack of resources or skills required is a
study limitation, including an environment that restricts the quality of data.
Advantages and disadvantages of primary data:
Advantages of primary data : Researcher was able to collect data using a number of methods
such as questionnaire, observation, interview etc., which allows for the availability of updated data
in a realistic way. Reliability with preliminary data is usually high Provide a very reliable source
of data collected.
Disadvantage of the initial data is that it takes a long time and effort in the case of the interview
or observation. In addition, it is difficult to prepare the instrument because of the placement of the
items and their suitability to the target.
3.6.2 Secondary data:
Secondary data is the information already collected for the purposes of the study. It determines
what information is required and is then developed using a model to extract the required data and
may need to go on the same initial data mentioned above.
Advantages and disadvantages of secondary data:
Advantages of secondary data: Express the lowest cost when compared with the initial data as
they are available on the World Wide Web and easy to access at any time and less effort. Secondary
data enables the researcher to obtain information and images in a wider manner and from different
sources, whether files or books or pictures or articles or research have been approved previously.
Disadvantages of secondary data: are often in outer space through the Internet and from different
sources and sometimes lack accuracy and credibility. Furthermore, this data may not be updated
and old data is lost.
3.7 Data Analysis Technology:
After the completion of data collection, the coding and analysis process was done using a statistical
program such as SPACE, which is a program that assists in statistical analysis. The analysis
requires coding and placing all the data in the program and the appropriate selection depends on
the objectives sought by the researcher, the depth of the analysis and the variables that change in
the future. The analysis allows the researcher to obtain data on the study and reliability.
3.8 Legal, ethical and social issues:
Research ethics are the protection of the individual and the process of regulation of the negative
results that may result from research activities in this study, Thomson (2005) says that the question
of ethics in research activities is to ensure that the information from the respondents must be
confidential and will not harm anyone and so their names are retained And contact addresses such
as mobile phone number and ID. Fares (2002) say there are five ethical responsibilities that the
researcher must consider including (prior consent, confidentiality, privacy, participation and nonharm).
3.8.1 Ethical Issues:
Regarding the ethical issues in this study, the researcher asserts that there are no ethical issues in
the current study because it is not based on collecting confidential information from the target
population, but the study is interested in collecting general data related to electronic training in the
Ministry of Civil Service.
3.9 Research Limitations:
The study will be limited to providing Critical Evaluation of E-Training in the Ministry of Civil
Service and the extent of success of the project and knowledge of the challenges or obstacles to
the success of the project. The time for study is one of the constraints research in the second
semester of the academic year 2016/2017 and therefore the scope is short to provide more In the
subject of the research study.
3.10 Summary:
The current study is based on the analytical descriptive approach to achieve the purpose of the
study. The primary and secondary data were collected through the questionnaire which was
prepared by the researcher and verified the validity and reliability. It was found to be valid and
reliable. Also use open and closed questions to gather information for the study.

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