keep the answers short and brief1- Immanuel Kant, Grounding for metaphysics of morals2- J.S. Mills, Utilitarianism 3- Aristotle, Nicomachean ethics4- Virginia Held, The ethics of care: Personal, Political, and global
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Final Exam Review
I highly recommend that you review both your notes and the pages of the text indicated
in parentheses next to each question.
1. What is Kants technical argument for rejecting any moral theory based on
2. State all the formulas of Kants highest principle of morality. For each formula,
comment on its significance in relation to the other formulas and Kants moral
philosophy as a whole. (14, 30, 36, 38 [completed in lecture], 39-40 [completed
3. Choose one of the four cases. Summarize the case. Choose one formula to
apply to the case to explain how the associated maxim fails under that formula.
4. Why must we think of ourselves as belonging not just to a phenomenal world
(world of sense) but also a noumenal one (world of understanding)? (52-53)
5. What objection to utilitarianism is Mills higher-lower pleasure distinction meant
to address? How does it address it? (8-10)
6. What are the two methods for distinguishing higher from lower pleasures? (8,
7. How does Mill answer the objection that happiness is unattainable? (Two parts.)
8. Is it noble for a person to sacrifice her happiness? Explain. (16-17)
9. What consideration makes the life of virtuous activity superior to the political life
(the life in pursuit of honor)? (5)
10. State Aristotles definition of virtue and number its parts. Choose four of its
parts and comment on their significance within the context of Aristotles ethics
as a whole. (28, amended in lecture)
11. How does the courageous person appear to the coward? Why?
12. Summarize the ship in a storm example and analyze it in terms of the
categories of voluntariness. In the course of your answer, explain those
13. Define courage and comment on the significance of the definition, including its
relation to the definition of virtue. (47-48)
14. Define and discuss the central features of temperance and self-control. (52-56,
15. What constitutes a great-souled person? How does this virtue differ from the
Christian virtue of humility? (64-68)
16. Discuss mild-manneredness and its corresponding vices (there are three). Why is
one of the vices of excess worse than the other? (69-71)
17. List the five distinctive features of the ethics of care. Comment on two of them
in detail, especially on how they make the ethics of care different from the
dominant moral theories. (10-13)
18. Held spells out the ethics of care in terms of practice, value, and person. For
each of these themes, choose two of its characteristics to explain in detail. (Chs.
2-3, handwritten handout)
19. Explain the concept of prerequisites of autonomy and how Held sees it as
missing in the dominant moral theories.
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