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Running head: PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
Psychological Real World Problem
Shaima Munye
October 03, 2017
1
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
2
Real world problem
Major depressive disorder is a serious psychological problem, which is affecting many
people currently across the world. It results from sustained and untreated depression, which many
individuals tend to assume. Young adults are more likely to develop major depressive disorder.
Based on the findings of the report published in the Journal of American association women are
more likely to suffer major depressive disorder at 26% compared to men at 12%. The current
statistics show that 14 million adults in the United States have been directly affected by the major
depressive disorder. This represents about 6.7% of the total population. This is a very high
percentage because major depressive disorder can be effectively controlled before it escalates
based on the development of better control measures (Bockting et al., 2014).
Many people tend to assume the impact of depression majorly based on the understanding
that stress is part of life and it is very difficult to detect when stress has escalated to depression in
a given individual. Seeking medical advice regarding individual wellbeing is an important
consideration, which can be put in place to ensure that an individual is positively engaged. Major
depressive disorder is a condition that can be significantly countered if there is a better engagement
among individuals. There are some factors which are likely to lead to a major depressive disorder
is an individual is not engaged. These factors include sustained stress, divorce or serious illness
such as chronic illness, which drain an individual in thoughts making it difficult for them to
recover. These are issues, which can be controlled through the development of better interventions
across different environments. The objective of addressing major depressive disorder is to sensitize
the society about the ability to control the disorder and create an understanding of major
interventions, which can be incorporated to develop a positive understanding of the major
depressive disorder (Young & Cashwell, 2016).
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
3
Addressing major depressive disorder
There are different psychological considerations, which can be used to provide an
understanding of the major depressive disorder and its overall control within the environment.
Different psychological perspectives that are put in place provide a different understanding of the
issue at hand, which creates a better environment where it is possible to have a crucial
understanding on the issue from different psychological perspectives. Psychological perspectives
provide different environments under which human interactions can be explained and ensure that
there is a positive understanding of the essential elements that need to be considered in order solve
the problem. The two perspectives that are considered in this case will include behavioral and
cognitive psychological perspective.
Behavioral perspective
Behavioral psychology perspective focuses on understanding the well-being of an
individual or a given issue based on their interaction. Psychologists believe that behavior is formed
from the interaction of an individual with the environment. The environment, in this case, forms
social environment under which an individual is engaged. The social interaction, in this case,
creates diverse forms of understanding which results into a varied reflection on individual
wellbeing. Developing stress within a social environment is mainly as a result of negative
interaction within a social environment. The response to a given stimuli is crucial in defining the
overall well-being of an individual. Therefore behavioral, psychological perspective focus on
understanding the key underlying elements, which help in defining the overall well-being of an
individual. Major depressive disorder, in this case, can be said to form as a result of negative
engagement by individual based on their response to certain stimulus (Bockting et al., 2014).
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
4
To have a better understanding of a mental health situation, it is important first to
understand the cause of the issue, and thus behaviorism theory provides the platform needed to
effectively understand the whole process and develop the best treatment model that fits the
situation. It is important to understand that there are different causes of mental health and thus it
is very difficult to find a solution to a problem that has not been significantly analyzed.
Cognitive psychology perspective
This psychological perspective aims at creating an understanding of how people perceive,
remember, think and solve problems. Cognitive psychology acknowledges the existence of the
internal mental state and its overall critical influence on how an individual can perceive things. It
also highlights that memory structures determine how information is perceived. Individuals tend
to have different ways on how they perceive things. The manner in which an individual can
perceive a given aspect plays an important role in informing how they tend to act (Young &
Cashwell, 2016).
Attention and perception play a very crucial role in defining the reaction of an individual.
The difference in reaction to the same thing is mainly explained by the difference in attention,
which influences the perception and thus creating a varied environment on the reaction process of
a given aspect. Attention is a selective response to stimuli while perception is the consideration or
the understanding an individual has towards certain aspects within a given context. To effectively
understand the aspect of attention and perception, it is important to consider certain key
experiments, which are vital in developing a better-engaged environment. Cognitive psychological
perspective provides a clear environment where major depressive disorder development can be
understood. The disorder utilizes the negative perception that has been made regarding a given
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
5
stimuli. It is very important to develop a greater focus on the underlying issues in determining the
mental state of an individual within a given environment (Shea, 2016).
Peer-reviewed article that would address the problem
Slavich and Irwin (2014) assert that treatment of Major depressive disorder involves both
pharmacological processes and non-pharmacological processes. Different interventions can be put
in place to control the impact of the disorder. Pharmacological interventions, which have been put
in place, provide a short-term solution with major side effects, which are detrimental to the overall
health of an individual in the long term. The findings from the study highlight that there is the need
to emphasis on non-pharmacological intervention, which concentrates on controlling an individual
behavior and tendency to adopt negative understanding on issues based on the outlined
considerations. Physical exercise has been highlighted as major interventions which play a key
role in positively engaging an individual suffering from the major depressive disorder. Physical
exercises help individuals in cooling down as well as burning extra calories, which help an
individual remain alert and positively engaged. Counselling sessions provide primary intervention
where an individual can provide crucial information where critical assessment is done to engage
an individual by evaluating their conditions (Slavich & Irwin, 2014).
Zarate et.al (2013) piloted a randomized add-on trial of an N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
antagonist in the treatment of treatment-resistant bipolar depression. The study based on the
existing therapies of bipolar depression, which have lagged in the onset of action. The randomized
trial sought to determine whether an N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antagonist produces rapid
antidepressant effects in the subjects with bipolar depression. A randomized placebo controlled
double blind crossover add-on study. The results revealed that from the first 40 minutes depressive
symptoms in subjects receiving ketamine compared with placebo. The patients with treatment
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
6
resistant bipolar depression, robust and rapid antidepressant effects results from a single
intravenous dose of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonist (Zarate et.al, 2013).
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
7
References
Bockting, C. L., Hollon, S. D., Jarrett, R. B., Kuyken, W., & Dobson, K. (2015). A lifetime
approach to major depressive disorder: The contributions of psychological interventions in
preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinical psychology review, 41, 16-26.
Park, S. C., Oh, H. S., Oh, D. H., Jung, S. A., Na, K. S., Lee, H. Y., … & Park, Y. C. (2014).
Evidence-based,
non-pharmacological
treatment
guideline
for
depression
in
Korea. Journal of Korean medical science, 29(1), 12-22.
Shea, S. C. (2016). Psychiatric interviewing: the art of understanding: a practical guide for
psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, social workers, nurses, and other mental health
professionals. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Slavich, G. M., & Irwin, M. R. (2014). From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder:
A social signal transduction theory of depression. Psychological bulletin, 140(3), 774.
Young, J. S., & Cashwell, C. S. (Eds.). (2016). Clinical Mental Health Counseling: Elements of
Effective Practice. SAGE Publications.
Zarate, C. A., Mathews, D., Ibrahim, L., Chaves, J. F., Marquardt, C., Ukoh, I., … & Luckenbaugh,
D. A. (2013). A randomized trial of a low-trapping nonselective N-methyl-D-aspartate
channel
blocker
in
major
depression. Biological
doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.10.019
psychiatry, 74(4),
257-264.
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
8
Annotated Bibliography
Dumas, G., de Guzman, G. C., Tognoli, E., & Kelso, J. S. (2014). The human dynamic clamp as a
paradigm
for
social
interaction. Proceedings
of
the
National
Academy
of
Sciences, 111(35), E3726-E3734. Retrieved from: http://doi 10.1073/pnas.1407486111
The researchers sought to determine how human behavior is influenced by social
interaction through consideration of the human dynamic camp. Human behavior has
different consideration that bring a better understanding of the developmental process,
which is very important in the social interactions that an individual is able to have.
Therefore, the study sought to create a better understanding of the human dynamic, which
allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by other dynamic
models. The Human Dynamic Clamp is a very important model that provides important
consideration into the understanding of human interaction. It is a powerful model because
it provides a very significant opportunity to explore a parameter ranges and perturbations
that are not very much accessible among human interaction. The experiments conducted
provided a significant understanding of human behavior and the interaction between human
behavior and social interactions. The experiments showed that the range of social
interactions is much higher because of bidirectional coupling. The process of generalizing
findings indicates how the human dynamic clamp can be exploited as a general model to
investigate social interactions.
Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2013). Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social
networks and human behavior. Statistics in medicine, 32(4), 556-577.
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
9
The study sought to examine the dynamic social networks and human behavior. Human
behavior can be defined in a number of ways where there is better understanding on the
underlying issues, which help in creating an effective environment for better behavior
understanding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish human behavior and social
networks interactions through the social contagion theory. The study was able to determine
that social networks are greatly developed with respect to common consideration of
individuals with similar traits who are able to have same social interactions. The
consideration of the specific elements within the study was aimed at creating a common
and specific engagement between different participants in the study. Thus, social
interactions play a very significant role in influencing the overall engagement between
individual with different character traits.
van der Velden, A. M., Kuyken, W., Wattar, U., Crane, C., Pallesen, K. J., Dahlgaard, J., … & Piet,
J. (2015). A systematic review of mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based cognitive
therapy in the treatment of recurrent major depressive disorder. Clinical psychology
review, 37, 26-39. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.02.001
The study focused on systematic review on mechanisms involved in mindfulness based
cognitive therapy in the treatment of recurrent major depressive disorder in individuals.
The study was developed on the existing assertion that mindfulness-based cognitive
therapy is crucial in treatment of recurrent major depressive disorder however, the specific
mechanisms in which mindfulness-based cognitive therapy lead to therapeutic change
remains widely unclear. Preliminary studies reviewed indicated that changes in attention,
memory specificity, emotional reactivity and momentary positive and negative might be
crucial in developing an understanding on how mindfulness based cognitive therapy exerts
PSYCHOLOGICAL REAL WORLD PROBLEM
10
its clinical effects. Therefore, the findings from the study show that mindfulness based
cognitive therapy could work effectively based on the MBCT model that are developed.
The study also highlighted the need to develop more rigorous designs that can have a
greater assessment of recurrent major depressive disorder.

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