Revise the paper you wrote for me last time.

Hi, You still have a lot of polishing and organization left to do:Explain the importance of this material, make sure each paragraph has a topic sentence that connects to your main argument. You are trying to explain which students of indian history need to learn more about the scholarly work on the Indus Valley culture, you don’t actually explain its importance. At times you just seem to be quoting or summarizing the work of other scholars that is not the same thing as an argumentPut in Chicago style footnotes for each citation, I sent out a draft earlier, please make sure you know how to do this correctly.I have noted some changes for grammar and style, those are perhaps the easiest fix.Please keep in mind that the quality of the argument matters as this will be 5% of the grade, and will be graded exactly the way papers for the class have been.Please see more in the papers.
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Running head: INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
Dear,
You still have a lot of polishing and organization left to do:
1) Explain the importance of this material, make sure each paragraph has a topic sentence
that connects to your main argument. You are trying to explain which students of indian
history need to learn more about the scholarly work on the Indus Valley culture, you don’t
actually explain its importance. At times you just seem to be quoting or summarizing the
work of other scholars that is not the same thing as an argument
2) Put in Chicago style footnotes for each citation, I sent out a draft earlier, please make sure
you know how to do this correctly.
3) I have noted some changes for grammar and style, those are perhaps the easiest fix.
Please keep in mind that the quality of the argument matters as this will be 5% of the grade, and
will be graded exactly the way papers for the class have been.
Indus Valley Civilization
Gateway at Harappa
A unique civilization took place along the Ghaggar-Hakra (present site is in Pakistan),
and Indus Rivers across an enormous sphere of five hundred thousand square miles, a region
more significant than the one of both Mesopotamian or Egypt. Its principal cities, some beyond
three miles in perimeter, were constructed of wood or clay-brick. They housed populations
1
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
2
rivaling those of Mesopotamia. Agriculture was the primary product, but fables about the
fabulous treasure in the Indus region flowed in faraway areas with fantasies regarding a land
with tin, peacocks, gold, and carnelian. The Indus society had a grasp on ancient writing practice
of 400 distinct symbols. But to date, inefficient of a bi-lingual lettering, no one has fortunately
deciphered its characters. All that exists now for the archaeologist are architectural remains,
material objects of cyclic life and luxury, stamp seals and figurines. Without passage to written
records, how can the archaeologists illuminate the history of this civilization, or probe into its
spiritual beliefs, or understandthe system of government and trade? In this paper, I will first
review some impressive historical structures of large-scale constructions and then traverse the
realm of the seal-cutter to restore components of Indus society.
The Emergence of Civilization
Most city domains were residential. There are no distinctly identifiable religous
buildings. Large houses primarily positioned on fortified raised elevations inside the cities may
have housed either workshops or warehouses for cereals and other food merchandises. Their
position in the uppermost part of the townships could be a component of an attempt to hold their
contents drained and away from the unexpected floods. It is not known if other comprehensive
constructions, such as the famous Mohenjo-Daro bath which measuring 9.8 feet deep and by 23
feet by 39 feet, were a communal bathing and conference areas comparable to the Roman tubs or
were correlated with religious customs. These customs include things such as the spring
ablutions to redeem the body distinguished from advanced Indian civilization/advancement1
Till 1999, the discovery of across 1,056 municipalities and towns took place, of which 96
got excavated in the year above, principally in the broad vicinity of the Ghaggar-Hakra and Indus
Rivers and their branches. Among the hamlets were the essential metropolitan centers of
Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi and Ganeriwala in the Cholistan. The Harappan
language is not undeviatingly attested, and its connection is questionable since the Indus writing
is yet to find a proper interpretation. A contact with the Elamo-Dravidian or Dravidian dialect
group is preferable among a section of intellectuals.
Nevertheless, these politically influenced thoughts are subject to dispute by other
scientists who assert that the desert areas of Ghaggar-Hakra have been neglected by agriculture
and settlements as the edge of the Indus era. Therefore, this means there may be more places
than discovered in the Indus valley’s alluvium., Many Harappan sites along the river beds of
Ghaggar-Hakra have been overstated and that individual Ghaggar-Hakra, during its existence,
was a feeder of the river Indus, so the current classification is superfluous. “Harappan
Civilization” survives as the conventional one, in regards to the general archaeological code of
designating a civilization following its initial find spot (Young, Ruth and Coningham, Robin,
2015).
1
Kenoyer,Ancient Cities of the Indus Civlization (complete the citation with all publication information and
add page numbers for the parts you use.)
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
Additional remnants from elite dwellings provide more explicit penetration into the
environments of religion and commerce. Houses in towns were established in neighborhoods
underneath the fortress, their outsides facing onto thin places. Multi-storied apartments
composed a fine-made grid design with rooms unfolding into a central yard. Those apartments
in spacious homes had erected toilet and bathing areas positioned upon an outside wall. Fittings
were made of tightly placed bricks capped with a grade with descending sloping conduits
correlating house plumbing to external municipal channels located beneath courts (Kenoyer J.
M., 1998).
Thousands of seals with a square-shape chiefly made of steatite, a kind of sandstone,
were later detected in homes, workshops, and storehouses. Steatite stone is comfortable and soft
to shape with a sharp-pointed stone/copper instrument.
3
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
4
An image of ancient Seal (Kenoyer J. M., 2013).
The Indus have small and square-shaped seals. The face or obverse surface bears an
engraved model with or outwardly a saying. A boss drilled with a passage is on its rear
designating that this could be draped by a string from round one’s hand or hung from a garment.
When the seal is in the application, it could be secured with two thumbs by grasping the
miniature handle on the reverse. Although we are doubtful of whereby seals by the Indus,
various philosophers understand that they worked to distinguish a person or a gathering just as a
corporate or signature seal does now. Pressed upon soft pottery or additional pliable stuff, the
carved model on its front left a unique image. Footprints left by remarkable seals designate that
all were embossed on clay that was installed over cloth coiled around barrels that held products.
Following the fabric and clay was utilized around the top of the pot and its lid to work as an
unassailable lock, the seal was fascinated, transmitting an icon that classified the keeper of the
package and its stuff. The packaging could suddenly be put or exported.
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
5
The northern seals engraved with creatures and characters were located at the section of
Harappa imprinted with pictures of fish, goats, crocodiles, hares, incense burners, and swastikas.
From 2500-1700 BCE so-known sign seals were batch manufactured. On their front, these
fasteners represent animal portraits with on ordinary seven as though un-deciphered symbols or
signs recorded above the painting. At Mohenjo-Daro, more than 75% discovered seals described
a composite or a particular creature. The unicorn is ordinary, accompanied by water buffalo,
small-horn bulls (pictured above), elephant, rhinoceros, antelope, goat, hare, and crocodile.
Peacocks, squirrels, cobras, tigers, squirrels, birds in flight and mongooses are painted on
additional varieties of seals and pottery. Hardly are goddess/gods or myths drawn on stamp
seals. What do we learn about these images both to the possessors of the seals and their
environment and climate they thrived in? Pictures of monkeys, mongoose, tigers, and cobras
designate a wilderness environment (Kenoyer J. M., 2013).
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
References
Kenoyer, J. M. (1998). Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Kenoyer, J. M. (2013). Iconography of the Indus-Unicorn: Origins and Legacy.
https://www.harappa.com/content/iconography-indus-unicorn-origins-and-legacy.
Young, Ruth and Coningham, Robin. (2015). The Archaeology of South Asia. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
6

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