# rewrite the two reports

Hi, i have two lab reports from my friend. You need to rewrite it for me to avoid plagiarism. Also add different references from the ones mentioned in the report.
magnetic_field_in_a_coil___lab_2_.docx

rc_time_constant_lab.docx

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Magnetic field in a coil
lab report
Davis Orubele
10/26/17
Acknowledgement: Akinolu Olagunju, Tseghe Simpson
and Physics 206.002 class
Executive Summary:
The purpose of this experiment was to examine the magnetic fields created by current
carrying wires, solenoids, and Helmholtz coils both quantitatively and qualitatively, using a gauss
probe and a compass. We found that the magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils is linearly related
to the current, but not linearly related to the axial position nor to the radial distance. The magnetic
field was greatest at the center of the coil and steadily decreased as it approached either end of the
coil along the axis. The field was constant along the radial axis of the coil until the radial distance
surpassed the radius of the coil, at which point the field changed direction and the magnitude of
the field dropped, peaked, and then steadily decreased.
Introduction:
A solenoid is a long helical coil of wire through which a current is run in order to create a
magnetic field.The magnetic field of the solenoid is the superposition of the fields due to the
current through each coil. It is nearly uniform inside the solenoid and close to zero outside and is
similar to the field of a bar magnet having a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other
depending upon the direction of current flow. The goal of this study is to see how to examine the
magnetic fields caused by current carrying solenoid coils and Helmholtz coils. Helmholtz coil, the
relationship between the magnetic field and the current, radial distance, and axial position.
Literature Review:
A solenoid is a closely packed helical coil constructed by winding a long conducting wire.
The net field inside the solenoid is equal to the vector sum of the magnetic fields generated by
each turn of the wire. If a solenoid were infinitely long, we would have an ideal configuration, in
which the magnetic field inside the solenoid is uniform and parallel to its axis. A real solenoid,
which is of finite length, should be a good approximation of the ideal situation, provided that we
avoid making measurements close to the ends.
Materials:
 Windows Pc
 Universal Lab interface
 Logger pro
 Vernier Magnetic Field Sensor
 Adjustable Power supply
 Graphical Analysis or Graph Paper
 Square or circular frame
 Ammeter
 Momentary -contact switch
 Magnetic Compass
 Long spool of insulated wire (at least 12m)
Methodology:
The Gaussmeter was first calibrated for the longitudinal Hall probe. With the Hall probe placed at
the center of the coil, the strength of the magnetic field was measured as a function of current. The
direction of the current was reversed and the direction of the magnetic field was noted. The current
in the coil was then fixed at 3 A. The center of the coil was located as the position where the
magnetic field strength was maximum. Then, the magnetic field strength was measured as a
function of position along the axis of the coil. By reducing the current of the coil all the to zero,
the number of turns in the coil was counted and, also each value of the magnetic field was
registered.
Results:
Data Table 1
Current in a coil
(A)
Magnetic Field
(mT)
3.0
.163
2.5
.140
2.0
.112
1.5
.080
1.0
.052
0.5
.026
0.0
.002
Number of turns
Magnetic Field
10
.163
9
.159
8
.140
7
.124
6
.104
5
.088
Data Table 2
4
.074
3
.056
2
.037
1
.021
Discussion:
In this activity, we examined how the magnetic field is related to both the number of turns
in a coil and the current through the coil. A Magnetic Field Sensor will be used to detect the field
at the center of the coil. A complication that must be considered is that the sensor will also detect
the Earths field and any local fields due to electric currents or some metals in the vicinity of the
sensor and from the data we can see that the experiment, we found the experimental results agree
extremely well with the theoretical prediction.
Conclusion:
From this lab we have studied the magnetic field generated by a single coil configuration involving
coils of wire. The experimental results agree quantitatively with the theoretical predictions within the
uncertainties of the experiment. Reasonable values for the number of coils in each configuration are
deduced from our experimental data.
Acknowledgments:
 Physics 206.002 class
 Tseghe Simpson
 Akinolu Olagunju
 Professor Kinyua
 Morgan State Physics Department
References:

Appel, Kenneth. The Magnetic Field in a Coil. Physics with Computers Using Logger
Pro: Physics Experiments Using Vernier Sensors, Vernier Software, 2000.

The Electromagnet. Pardon Our Interruption, Aspencore, www.electronicstutorials.ws/electromagnetism/electromagnets.html.
RC Time Constant
Mackintosh-Ighoro. Reuben
Physics Lab 206 002
10/2/17
Abstract
The objectives of this lab was to Investigate the time needed to discharge a capacitor in an RC
circuit, measure the voltage across a resistor to determine the RC time constant, and determine
the value of an unknown capacitor and resistor from the measurements. From the data collected
in our experiment we can see that as the time increases the discharge decreases, but vice versa
for the time vs voltage.
Introduction
The goal of this study is to see how engineers use capacitors because of timing. We do so by
measuring time constant connected with a discharging and charging RC. We investigated the
time needed to discharge a capacitor in an RC circuit, measuring the voltage across a resistor to
determine the RC time constant, and determine the unknown capacitor and resistor from the
measurements. Based on our result from class the experiment we see how the charging and
discharging RC fluctuates over time.
Literature Review
A study was done on the RC time constant, and the author of the lab report noted that We have
measured the charge and discharge of an RC combination. As expected, the charge/discharge
voltage is exponential in time, with a time constant of RC. Capacitors connected in parallel have
the sum of the individual capacitances. Based on this literature we can see how the charge and
discharge of an RC fluctuates over time.
http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~dodds/Files231/example_lab.pdf.
Methodology
Construct a circuit using the capacitor supplied, the voltmeter, and the power supply. Have the
circuit approved by our instructor before turning on any power. Obtain from our instructor the
value of the input resistance of the voltmeter and record it. 2. Close the switch, and adjust the
power supply emf ” as read on the voltmeter to the value chosen by our instructor. Open the
switch and simultaneously start the timer. 4. The voltmeter reading will fall as the capacitor
discharges. Let the timer run continuously, and for eight predetermined values of the voltage,
record the time t at which the voltmeter reads these voltages. A convenient choice for voltages at
which to measure t would be increments of 10%. For example, if ” ¼ 20.0 V, then use voltage of
18.0, 16.0, 14.0, etc. Record the voltage V and times t. Repeat Steps 2 through 4 two more times
for Trials 2 and 3.
Materials

Voltmeter (at least 10 MO resistance-digital readout), laboratory timer.

Direct current power supply (20 V), high quality unknown capacitor (510 mF).

Unknown resistor (approximately 10 MO), single-pole (double-throw) switch.

Results
Time
Charge (v)
Discharge (v)
20
0.829
1.131
40
1.401
0.874
60
1.969
0.662
80
1.931
0.508
100
1.783
0.393
120
1.676
0.3337
140
1.665
0.3031
160
1.646
0.2744
180
1.634
0.2493
200
1.62
0.2266
RC Constant
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
50
Series1
100
Series2
150
Expon. (Series1)
200
250
Expon. (Series2)
Discussion
From the data we can see how the charge and discharge relate to time. This graph tells us that
the charge which is in blue line was higher in voltage compared to the discharge.
Conclusion
From this lab I learnt how capacitors are important to engineers, and how they are used for
timing. I also learnt the engineers store energy in a capacitor and that capacitors are measured in
Farad. I also learnt that capacitors come in various shapes and sizes, but the basic idea is that a
capacitor consist of two conductors separated by a spacing.
Acknowledgement
I acknowledge the whole class for their support towards completing this experiment in class.

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