risk communication campaign analysis

I am requested to do a comprehensive analysis of any campaign and focus on the risk communication part of it. the paper should follow the methodology of the document provided ( in the attachment) in making a successful campaign. campaigns that addresses medical issues are preferred. here are some suggestions:2001 anthrax communication campaignOr the Midwest Hanta virus.Or the current “plague” outbreak.the paper must be written in APA style. acronyms if used, should be clarified.upon approval of the bid I will provide a sample paper to the touter so you know what i need exactly.
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Communicating
Emergency
Preparedness
Strategies for Creating a
Disaster Resilient Public
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
OTHER CRC PRESS TITLES
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Natural Hazards Analysis: Reducing the Impact of Disasters
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© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
Communicating
Emergency
Preparedness
Strategies for Creating a
Disaster Resilient Public
%BNPO 1 $PQQPMB t &SJO , .BMPOFZ
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
Auerbach Publications
Taylor & Francis Group
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Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
Auerbach Publications is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
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Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper
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International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4200-6510-7 (Hardback)
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Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Coppola, Damon P.
Communicating emergency preparedness : strategies for creating a disaster resilient
public / Damon Coppola, Erin K. Maloney.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4200-6510-7 (hbk. : alk. paper)
1. Emergency management. 2. Risk communication. I. Maloney, Erin K. II. Title.
HV551.2.C635 2009
363.34’7–dc22
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© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
2009014256
DEDICATION
The authors dedicate this book to Eileen and Paul Coppola, and Nancy
and Tim Maloney, from whom countless risk lessons have come.
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments
Introduction
About the Authors
xiii
xv
xix
1 Public Disaster Preparedness: In Theory and in Practice
Introduction
Communication Science: A Primer
Social Marketing
The Public Disaster Preparedness Process: A Systems Approach
Phase 1: Early Planning
Phase 2: Developing a Campaign Strategy
Phase 3: Implementing and Evaluating the Campaign
Purpose, Goals, and Objectives
Goal 1: Raising Public Awareness of the Hazard Risk
Goal 2: Guiding Public Behavior
Goal 3: Warning the Public
Other Risk Communication Goals
Priorities and Goals of Risk Communication Recipients
Seeing the Bigger Picture: Communication as One Component of a Larger
Solution
Requirements of a Public Education Campaign
The Dangers of Failed Risk Communication
Conclusion
References
2 Managing Risk, Emergencies, and Disasters
Introduction
Fundamental Emergency Management Concepts
Risk
Hazard
Vulnerability
Disaster
Safe
vii
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
1
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CONTENTS
The Management of Risk
The Management of Emergencies and Disasters: Emergency Management
Functions
Mitigation
Preparedness
Response
Recovery
The Management of Emergencies and Disasters: Emergency Management
Structures
The Fire Department
Law Enforcement
Emergency Management
Emergency Medical Services
The Military
Other Emergency Management Resources
Governmental Preparedness Actions
Individual and Business Preparedness
Jurisdictional Management and Control: Defining Responsibility
What Is Public Emergency Preparedness?
The Advantages of a Trained Public
Conclusion
References
3 The Campaign — Step 1: Early Planning
Introduction
Define the Problem
Identify and Analyze the Hazard Risk
Define the Target Population
Identify Appropriate Solutions
Market Research
Existing Program Research and Gap Analysis
Determine Project Feasibility
Establish Realistic Goals and Objectives
Form the Planning Team and Coalition
Encouraging Partners to Join the Planning Team
The Media as a Partner
Drawing Up Partnership Plans
Project Management
viii
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
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CONTENTS
Conclusion
References
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4 Step 2: Develop a Campaign Strategy
Introduction
Project Kickoff
The Campaign Strategy
Influential External Variables
Selecting Appropriate Settings, Channels, and Methods
Settings
Channels
Methods
Selecting Communication Channels and Methods
Selecting Communicators
Design and Develop Message Content
The Extended Parallel Process Model
Creating Targeted Materials
Social Norms
Design Materials
Activities and Events Planning
Establishing a Project Timetable
Creating the Comprehensive Communication Plan
Pilot Testing and Adjusting Campaign Materials
Conclusion
References
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5 Campaign Implementation and Evaluation
179
Introduction
Campaign Launch
The Media
Evaluation
Objectivity in Evaluation
The Justification for Evaluation
Process Evaluation
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design
True Experimental Designs
Conclusion
References
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ix
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
CONTENTS
6 Program Support
199
Introduction
Types of Program Support
Sources of Support
Individual Donors
Concluding Remarks about Individual Donors
Business and Corporate Donors
Small Businesses
Foundations
Community Foundations
Public Foundations
Family Foundations
Private Foundations
Finding Appropriate Foundations
Local, State, County, and Federal Government Grants
Local Government
State and County Governments
The Federal Government
Religious Organizations
Civic Organizations and Service Clubs
Fee Generation
Partnerships
Implementing a Fundraising Strategy
Fundraising Strategy Factors
Asking for Stuff
Conclusion
References
7 Emergency Management Public Education Case Studies
Case: Multi-Cultural Disaster Preparedness Campaign
Case: Multi-Cultural Disaster Preparedness Campaign
Case: Preparing Children for Emergencies
Case: Organized Training for Communities
Case: Children’s “Edutainment” Program
Case: Disaster Preparedness at Religious Institutions
Case: Earthquake Readiness Taught to a Population That Speaks English
as a Second Language
Case: Citywide Preparedness Effort
x
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
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CONTENTS
Case: Volunteer Emergency Preparedness Program
Case: Teaching Emergency Preparedness in Schools
Case: Emergency Preparedness in Public Transportation
Case: FEMA Prepares Children for Disasters
Case: Disaster Preparedness in Schools
Case: Emergency Preparedness in Neighborhoods
Case: Public Private Partnership for Disaster Preparedness
Case: National Public Education Effort
Appendix: Web Sites and Downloadable Guides Found on the Internet
xi
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Damon Coppola would like to express his profound gratitude to his wife,
Mary Gardner Coppola, for her guidance and patience; to Jane Bullock
and George Haddow for their friendship and support and for continuing
to give freely of their expertise and experience; to Eileen Coppola for her
sage editing assistance; and to Jack Harrald, Greg Shaw, J. René van Dorp,
and Ollie Davidson for their insight.
Erin Maloney would like to thank her former advisors Dr. Dana
Mastro and Dr. Leslie Snyder for inspiring her to go into the field; her current doctoral advisor, Dr. Maria Lapinski, for her guidance and support;
and Kyle for teaching her the value of home-roasted coffee.
The authors would also like to thank Mark Listewnik, Jessica Vakili,
and Andrea Demby at Taylor & Francis for the assistance they provided in
the development of this book.
xiii
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
INTRODUCTION
The first eight years of the 21st century were punctuated by a diverse series
of mega-disasters, most notably the earthquakes in Gujarat, India, and
Kashmir, Pakistan, the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States,
the Indian Ocean tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, Cyclone Nargis in Burma,
and the Sichuan earthquake in China. After-action reporting following
these events denoted that only a very small percentage of the affected
populations had acted to reduce their vulnerability prior to each disaster’s
occurrence. In many of these cases and others like them, national and
international governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
alike expended tremendous human and financial resources in an effort
to promote public disaster preparedness. Clearly, most of these efforts fell
far short of their expected outcomes.
Coupled with the recognition that natural and technological disasters are increasing both in number and severity, such poor communitywide public disaster preparedness figures obligate the adaptation of a
more effective practice. Individual and family preparedness are vital to
increasing overall community resilience, especially in light of the limitations typically experienced by the emergency services in the outset of
large-scale events. Even in countries whose governments boast the most
highly advanced emergency management capacities, leaders have found
it necessary to warn average citizens that a minimum of 48 to 72 hours of
self-reliance in the aftermath of a major disaster should be anticipated.
Individual emergency preparedness is by no means a new concept;
however, the recognition of its true lifesaving potential has elevated its
prominence among professionals in the field of emergency management.
In response to a recent Council for Excellence in Government study, which
reported that “most Americans haven’t taken steps to prepare for a natural disaster, terrorist attack, or other emergency” (USA Today, 12/18/2006),
former Department of Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff
echoed an even wider societal recognition of the dire need for increased
public disaster preparedness efforts in stating that, “Everybody should
have [disaster preparedness] basics down. I think Katrina shook people
up. A lot of messaging and a lot of education, particularly at the local level,
is the key” (Government Executive, 12/20/2006). Furthermore, the University
of Colorado Natural Hazards Center, a leader in the advancement of
xv
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
INTRODUCTION
emergency management throughout the world, stated in its January 2007
Natural Hazards Observer that: (1) there is a positive correlation between
public awareness and positive disaster outcomes; (2) opportunities exist to
better educate the public, coordinate messages, and initiate social change;
(3) recent studies and surveys all indicate that there is an immediate need
for better public education before disaster; and most importantly (4) there
exists no comprehensive review of practices and resources and identification of components that make up an effective disaster public education
program (Natural Hazards Observer, January 2007).
Perhaps most significantly, a June 2007 report released by the Emergency Preparedness Institute states, “The current approach to encouraging preparedness is ineffective, and a new method of communicating the
importance of developing business and personal preparedness plans is
needed.” While other industries, most notably the public health sector,
have enjoyed great success in shaping public attitudes and actions about
their risk reduction behavior, the emergency management sector has thus
far been largely unsuccessful in its endeavors. Despite the high cost and
high profile of the penultimate preparedness effort, the Department of
Homeland Security Ready.gov preparedness campaign has failed to make
use of strongly supported public education methodologies that would have
most certainly improved outcomes (Washington Post, 8/10/2006). Clearly,
the most formidable obstacle to those preaching disaster preparedness is
an industry-wide lack of knowledge about how people learn new behaviors, what influences them to act upon this knowledge, and the best way
to create messages catering to those individual factors.
All communities are vulnerable to the effects of natural, technological, and intentional hazards. Every day, in every community, these hazard
risks result in emergency events of varying size and intensity. Occasionally,
they are of such great magnitude that they result in a major disaster. To
minimize the consequences posed by known and unknown hazards, or to
limit their likelihood of occurrence, communities perform mitigation and
preparedness actions and activities. Individual members of the public,
together representing the largest and most important community stakeholder, may be equipped with the skills and knowledge to further reduce
their own, their family’s, and their community’s vulnerability if given the
right kind of training using appropriate communication channels. This
public, once prepared, becomes an integral part of the community’s emergency management capacity. Properly trained individuals not only influence their own and their family’s disaster risk, they also use the skills they
have learned to rescue their neighbors, relieve shelter staff, retrofit homes
xvi
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
INTRODUCTION
for earthquakes, and to take countless more actions to extend the reach of
their local emergency services.
As is true with the emergency manager and first responders in a community, members of the general public need information and training if
they are to know what is best to do before, during, and after emergencies
occur. The information provided must reflect their true risk and must be
tailored to their needs, preferences, and abilities; transmitted in a way
they can receive and understand; and tested for effectiveness. Any education provided will be received in conjunction or in competition with
a wide range of other sources and messages relating to hazards, each
considered “risk communication” regardless of its influence. In addition, while some of this coincident information will be accurate, effective,
and useful, much of it is misleading, inaccurate, and ultimately harmful. Individuals are left to their own devices to cull through the daily
onslaught of information received for that which will help them and their
families prepare.
Creating risk messages and conveying them to the public require a
dedication of time, planning, and learning. Unfortunately, informing the
public about disaster preparedness is not as easy as simply telling them
what they should do. The practice of disaster preparedness public education, which includes public awareness, education, and outreach, is an
involved one relying on many years of practice and many different disciplines (including psychology, sociology, graphic design, marketing,
communication, emergency management, and many others). Risk communication efforts are ongoing, long-term in nature, and must adhere to strategic plans to be effective. They should be coordinated with other providers
in the community, and are most successful when they involve partners
drawn from throughout the community and even beyond its borders.
This resource has been developed to provide practitioners in the
United States and throughout the world, at both the local and national
levels, with the background and the tools they need to plan, design, and
carry out their public disaster preparedness efforts. The book is intended
as an academic resource as well as a practical how-to guide.
xvii
© 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Damon P. Coppola is the author of several leading emergency management academic and professional texts, including Introduction to Emergency Management, Introduction to Homeland Security, and Introduction to
International Emergency Management. Mr. Coppola is also the co-author of
several FEMA Emergency Management Institute publications, including
Hazards Risk Management, Emergency Management Case Studies, Comparative
Emergency Management, and NIMS and Incident Management Systems. As an
independent consultant in the emergency management sector, Mr. Coppola
has provided planning and technical assistance to emergency management organizations at the local, state, national, and international levels,
and in both the nonprofit and private sectors. Mr. Coppola’s clients have
included FEMA, The World Bank, Save the Children, The Humane Society,
ACORN, The Annie E. Casey Foundation, The Corporation for National
and Community Service, Marriott International, and more. Mr. Coppola
received his masters in Engineering Management (MEM) in crisis, disaster, and risk management from the George Washington University.
Erin K. Maloney holds a masters in communication from the University
of Connecticut at Storrs, and is working toward her doctorate of philosophy in communication with a specialization in environmental science and
policy at Michigan State University. Ms. Maloney’s practical experience and
research focus primarily on health communication, media, and research
methods. Her research generally has implications for communication campaign message design and public processing of messages. Ms. Maloney
consults on grassroots communication projects, most recently on a campaign that succeeded in passing a millage to preserve farmland and open
space in the State of Michigan. Ms. Maloney is a …
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