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Respond to both discussion questions with a minimum of 250 words each.1. Chapter 4 of the textbook addresses police professionalism. Identify the criteria for the term ?profession? and discuss whether the police department that serves your community meets the criteria. Explain why or why not. Do you think policing in general (in the United States) is a profession? Why or why not? (See attached file)2. After reading the case of Nasser Al-Aulaqi v. Obama, do you feel that the use of the unmanned CIA drone that killed Anwar Al-Aulaqi, a dual U.S. citizen-Yemini cleric and suspected terrorist, constituted a targeted killing in violation of the victim?s right to due process under the law?

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CHAPTER FOUR: Police Professionalism
Bureaucracy and Police Professionalism The bureaucratic aspects of policing conflict
in many ways with the professionalism as understood in other occupations. In law,
medicine, and education, a professional is someone with special expertise, resulting
from extensive training and experience, who exercises independent judgment about
critical events. The doctor, for example, makes critical decisions about diagnosis and
treatment of patients. The professional is not expected to follow a rigid set of rules.19
The bureaucratic aspects of policing represent a different approach to the control of
behavior. First, the quasi-military nature of police organizations has emphasized
hierarchical command and control rather than collegial decision making. Second,
police organizations attempt to control police officer behavior through for- mal, written
rules. Because of the history of the American police, police professionalism acquired a
special meaning. Professionalism meant the same thing as bureaucratization. Thus,
the professional departments were the ones that adopted O. W. Wilson?s principles of
police administration: specialization, hierarchy, clear lines of authority, writ- ten rules
and policies, and so on. Professional departments were the ones in which officers did
their job ?by the book,? meaning that they followed written departmental rules.20 To a
certain extent, however, the professional autonomy of the traditional professions is
disappearing. Doctors increasingly work in large hospitals or medical facilities. Like
other bureaucracies, these organizations impose formal controls over doctors?
behavior. Lawyers increasingly work in large law firms or corporations, which also seek
to control the lawyers? behavior by monitoring the number of hours billed.

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