SES and Opioid Addiction

Make up an experiment that focuses on socioeconomic status (specifically income and race) and Opioid abuse/addiction (only opioid, don’t focus on drugs as general). The sample would be the people with different income levels and races in Oakland, California. A study should find out what race (black or white) and income level (high or low) people are more likely to develop opioid addiction. The example attached below is actual experiment, but you don’t need to do the experiment, just choose either quasi-experiment research or non-experimental research (read the experiment detail doc), then create the experiment follow its design.The paper must have:SampleData collectionAnalysis: Quantitative data analysis + Qualitative data analysis


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D 2: Sample
The proposed study will be conducted with a sample of 60 students who are
mandated to participate in the BASICS program at the University of California, Davis
(UCD) for violation of university alcohol or drug policies. With approximately 400
students a year mandated to attend personal BASICS counseling, and about 90% of
these for violating alcohol policies, we expect no problems in recruiting the necessary
number of students for the study (see letter of support). Most of the participants are
undergraduate students, and there are a few more males than females in the
program. A professional specifically trained in BASICS conducts the
counseling. Students with more severe problems are mandated to further counseling or
treatment. We will recruit students from the group with less severe problems who have
received one counseling session.
UCD presents an ideal setting for this project as it has a long tradition of using
BASICS, and participants will have received the intervention from the same trained
counselor. We will recruit 60 students, 30 females and 30 males. Half of the students,
15 males and 15 females, will be randomly assigned to participate in a series of
qualitative interviews during the year following the intervention, and the other half will
serve as a validation sample. We have chosen to recruit 30 students for the qualitative
interviews to allow for some attrition and still have enough students to secure saturation
of themes and factors across gender, which is estimated at 12 interviews per
cycle. The following sampling procedure will be used:
1. At the end of the personal counseling session, the students will be informed by the
counselor of the possibility of participating in the study. If the student expresses interest
in participating, he/she will be handed an information package including an invitation
letter, information about the study, what is expected of the student if he/she decides to
participate in the study, information about confidentiality, and contact information for the
counselor as well as the P.I. of the study.
2. Every student that we recruit will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions
stratified by gender, 1) a “qualitative condition” including participation in individual semistructured interviews 2 months after the counseling session, 3 months after the previous
interview, and 6 months after the latest interview. They will be asked to complete
surveys at the same time intervals of the BASICS follow-up survey; 2) a validation
sample of students who will just complete the surveys at the same time intervals.
3. Students who were selected will be contacted by the P.I. to confirm the participation
and discuss questions they may have about the study. If a student chooses not to
participate after this contact, another student will be randomly selected from the
remaining students in the appropriate pool.
4. Each participating student will receive a brief description of the project as well as
assurance of confidentiality and the principles of voluntary participation. Included in the
package will also be a consent form that will be signed by the participant and the
interviewer prior to the first interview. Students in the qualitative condition sample will
each be offered $140 in total for their participation – $40 after each of the first two
interviews, and $60 after the last. The higher amount for the last interview will serve as
an incentive to participate in the entire study. Students in the validation sample will each
receive $20 for each of the surveys they participate totaling $60. The day before the
qualitative interview appointment, the interviewer will call the participant to confirm time
and place.
D 3: Data Collection
Data will be collected using standardized survey measures and semi-structured
personal interviews (see appendices). All interviews will be performed in a private
room at the Health Center at UC Davis and conducted by Dr. Nygaard, who has
extensive experience in interviewing from over 20 years of qualitative research. The
semi-structured interview is a process, in which the interviewer sets the agenda for
the topics and issues to be covered and the respondent gives meaning to the
content of the pre-defined items in the interview-guide. Semi-structured interviews
are an interactive process focusing on pre-defined themes . This means that it is a
dialogical process that will help respondents remember and articulate personal
experiences, as the interviewer uses probes to collect in-depth information about the
salient issues in the interview guide.
There will be three semi-structured interviews. For the qualitative condition group,
the first wave of interviews will take place within two weeks after participants have
filled out the follow-up questionnaire of BASICS, second wave 3 months after the
first interview, and the third wave 6 months after the previous interview. There is
increased emphasis on the time relatively close to the intervention because we
assume strategies from counseling will be tested and behavior changes will take
place soon after the intervention, while the last two data points will most likely
measure modifications or sustainability of initial behavior changes or even
regression to previous behaviors. The interviews will primarily focus on the
participants’ experiences coping with the recommendations from BASICS (for further
detail, see below). For specific events that the participants may have perceived as
particularly difficult or of specific personal importance, the Critical Incident Technique
(CIT) will be utilized. The CIT constitutes a method to collect comprehensive
information about specific events that are considered critical by the respondent. The
focus is on behavior (either the respondent’s own behavior, or the behavior of
others) that influenced the decision-making process of the respondent. For
example, in situations of experienced peer pressure, we will be able to collect indepth information about setting, occasion, other participants, kind of pressure,
reaction to pressure, etc. The purpose is to identify factors associated with an
outcome of interest, e.g., changes in coping strategy, changed social behavior, or
changes in drinking.
A salient issue in performing semi-structured interviews is the question of
establishing rapport. Rapport is essential, as it will provide a safe environment, in
which the respondent will feel comfortable answering sensitive
questions. Establishing a personal connection between the interviewer and the
participant is essential for obtaining honest answers to sensitive questions.
All participants from both conditions will fill out the alcohol use part of the follow-up
survey from BASICS (see appendix) at one month after counseling, 2 months after
the first survey, and 6 months after the previous survey. Participants in the
qualitative condition will fill out the surveys and e-mail it to the P.I. one week prior to
a scheduled interview. Participants in the validation sample will fill it out by e-mail at
the same intervals as participants in the qualitative condition. This approach has
three advantages, 1) we can track changes (or not) in the alcohol use, 2) the
information can be readily transferred to the qualitative software as variables, and 3)
we will use this information in the interviews to ask in-depth questions about how
and when the respondents drink, i.e., during the week, special occasions, during the
D 4: Analyses
The proposed study aims to identify emergent and novel concepts and build theory to
shed light upon the phenomenon under study.
The analyses of the semi-structured
interviews will initially follow traditional guidelines for qualitative thematic analysis as
described below . However, a unique feature of this project is the longitudinal design,
which will enable us to obtain more detailed nuances of the change process. For
example, we might expect a large effect on individual behavior in terms of either cutting
down drinking or failed attempts to do so soon after the interventions and that these
initial attempts of behavior changes could be modified over time. These modifications
could provide us with knowledge about different stages of this change
process. Comparing findings across the time and individuals will thus be an important
part of the process of analysis.
Qualitative thematic analysis. The primary purpose of qualitative thematic analysis is
to provide a complete description of how students perceive the change process they
experience after the intervention. A theme is defined as a specific category or
subcategory of information that appears throughout the interview data in similar or
varying contexts and is interconnected to other themes (e.g., peer group
influence). Categories correspond both to a priori themes derived from current research
and the interview guides, and to new themes that develop in the course of
questioning. Themes may be directly or indirectly addressed by the majority of
participants, or by a select few who, because of specific or differing characteristics (e.g.,
ethnicity, gender), have different experiential realities. Thematic analysis of interview
transcripts will involve the following steps:
Transcription and Entry of Data into a Computer-Based Program. As each interview is
completed, audio-recordings will be professionally transcribed by a trained
transcriber. These transcriptions will be entered into the QDA Miner computerized text
management program. This program allows cross-referencing, searching, and retrieval
of data through a keyword coding process. Dr. Nygaard has extensive experience using
this software.
Development of Thematic Codes. A preliminary coding manual will be developed based
on themes from the interview guides. Development of the coding manual will begin after
reading the first two transcripts; the manual will then be revised to include sub-themes
and new themes that emerge in the course of analyzing the interview transcripts. To
standardize the coding manual, and improve accuracy of its thematic categories, the
reading and coding of these initial interviews will be independently conducted by Dr.
Nygaard and the research assistants, and then compared for purposes of crosschecking. Where differences occur on codes, Drs. Nygaard and Kilmer will review the
relevant sections to reach agreement. This inclusion of both a priori specified codes and
inductively derived codes follows thematic analysis guidelines established by Strauss
and Corbin and Miles and Huberman.
Coding of Data. Once the coding manual has been developed, the actual coding of hard
copies of texts will take place. Data will be coded for themes and sub-themes from the
coding manual. An example of a major thematic category could be “active peer
influence” or “social expectancies” as possible characteristics of experiences of
participants. Related minor themes might include more specific descriptors of the same
situation (e.g., “seen as a boring,” “have less fun than usually,” “feel more confident or
sure of yourself”). Codes are then entered into the QDA Miner program. More than one
code can be assigned to a passage, and one code may be nested within
another. Coding will be conducted by trained research assistants. Periodic checks on
inter-coder reliability will be made by the P.I. Furthermore, after having coded the
interviews, the coders will reconcile their findings, discuss inconsistencies, and if
37, 38
necessary include the P.I. in the final decision about allocating difficult passages of the
interviews. If the coders experience major inconsistencies or if the P.I. finds it
necessary, further training on the code book will be performed.
Retrieval of Coded Text. Following the coding task, major and minor themes will be
identified. Categories will be arranged and retrieved hierarchically by key word entry: for
example, a major thematic code across all interviews can be clustered generally (e.g.,
positive expectancies of drinking), and by its distinctive features (e.g., makes the person
more relaxed, makes the person more sociable). The resulting analyses will lead to
manuscripts for peer review that should be of interest to public health researchers and
practitioners alike. Furthermore, they should lay the groundwork for a more systematic
mixed-method inquiry involving surveys and interviews focusing on the role of perceived
factors vs. “actual” factors in the process of change.
Dimensions of Analyses. The data collected and the features of the software will allow
us to conduct various comparative analyses. We will be able to identify intervention and
extra-intervention factors that have had a positive or negative influence on the personal
change process; we will be able to study differences between students who change their
behavior and students who do not; we will be able to investigate possible gender
differences in the process of change; and we will be able to examine possible effects of
the interviews on the change process by comparing alcohol consumption data in the two
study groups.
Quantitative data analysis. Survey data will be used to create past-30-day measures of
any alcohol use, frequency (days) × quantity (typical # drinks), frequency of binge
drinking (5+ drinks), maximum number of drinks on one occasion, and number of
alcohol-related consequences. We will also use the two-week drinking diary to create a
frequency × quantity measure. Chi-square and t-tests will be used to compare levels of
alcohol use and related consequences between the two groups of students at each
follow-up interval. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance to compare
changes in past-30-day and past-2-week alcohol use between the two groups (with age,
gender and ethnicity as covariates) to determine if qualitative interviews may have
influenced students’ drinking behaviors. Analyses will be conducted in SPSS and HLM
software to account for autocorrelation between repeated observations within
D 5: Timeline and Potential Obstacles
IRB approval + finishing
recruitment materials
Hiring and training of coders
Development of data collection
Interviews + data collection
Development of a priori codes
Development of coding manual
Data analysis
There are two potential obstacles in this project: recruiting a sample of 60 students,
and collecting interviews. Having students commit to a project for a year could be an
obstacle. However,
there is room for an attrition of up to 3 students in each condition by gender, and by
offering a relatively big incentive for the last interview, we are confident that we will
be able to overcome this potential obstacle. Throughout the project there will be
reviews of progress in coding and analyses, and whenever necessary adjustments
will be made.
What experiment we would use for this?
Applied Research: builds on basic research but focuses on applying the knowledge
from previous research and apply it to solve practical problems
Dependent variable: Abuse (factors: access/ # of prescriptions)
Mediating variable: Chronic Pain
Independent variable: SES
See the logic model below
Quasi: “Sort of Experimental design”, Either independent variable is manipulated with
no random assignment OR there is random assignment but no manipulation of
independent variable – most often the first.
Non-experimental research means there is a predictor variable or group of subjects that
cannot be manipulated by the experimenter. Typically, this means that other routes must
be used to draw conclusions, such as correlation, survey or case study.

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