short paper for operation management

Please answer the following questions base on Power Point; around 5 pages, double spacePlease use a company that you want to establish to answer the following questions:Chapter 8: Please evaluate an existing company of the industry as a comparison and identify the types of forecasting and demand planning methods that your dream company is going to adopt; be sure to include a minimum of two methods in your description and explain how real business practice may be more challenging (25 points). Chapter 9: Using the inventory management of an existing company of the same industry as a comparison, please define different types of inventories in your dream company’s supply chain, describe and use diagrams to illustrate how you may or may not implement fixed quantity system in the company with concepts such as reorder points and economic order quantity, and also briefly illustrate how you may or may not implement fixed period system (25 points). Chapter 10: Please examine the lean six sigma system of existing companies of the same industry as comparison, describe the potential use of lean six sigma in your dream company, evaluate how you can build and implement some of the lean six sigma tools and approaches, and also briefly describes the side-effects of lean system with industry examples (25 points). Chapter 4 and 5: Please describe the supply chain network design of your dream company and explain how the design could be used to support your company’s marketing and operations; please also describe how your business marketing and operations can define and impact your supply chain design; and explain how recent trends in supply chain management such as reverse logistics, global supply chain management, and any other viable applications that could influence the supply chain management practice in your company (25 points).
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Product and Service
Design
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Zara’s Fast Fashion
1.
2.
What are Zara’s core competencies?
Why do other firms take longer to go from design to
delivery?
4-2
McDonald’s New Dining Experience
1.
2.
What the service process is like
Will it add “service efficiency”?
4-3
A Revolution in 3D Printing
GE Buys Up 3-D Printing Companies
http://www.industryweek.com/technology/ge-snaps-european-3-d-printingcompanies-14-billion?NL=QMN-01&Issue=QMN-01_20160906_QMN01_499&sfvc4enews=42&cl=article_1&utm_rid=CPG03000001494121&ut
m_campaign=14322&utm_medium=email&elq2=23b6a0b2aa0a4f83a721
3237c2c
Hospitals Printing 3-D Hearts to Help
in Surgeries
http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/ct-3d-printed-hearts-surgery-1023biz-20161021-story.html
Industrial Firms Embrace 3-D
http://www.wsj.com/articles/3-d-printing-expands-to-metals-showing-industrial-promise1478860204?mod=itp&mod=djemITP_h
Doctors Reveal They Can 3-D Print
Body Parts
http://fortune.com/2016/02/16/3d-printed-earwake-forest/
4-4
? Every activities in an organization is tired to its
products and services
? Effective product and service design can help the
organization achieve competitive advantage:
? Packaging products and ancillary services to increase sales
? Using multiple-use platforms
? Implementing tactics that will achieve the benefits of high volume
while satisfying customer needs for variety
? Continually monitoring products and services for small
improvement opportunities
? Reducing the time it takes to get a new or redesigned product or
service to the market
Instructor Slides
4-5
4-5
Learning Objectives
1. Why do product and service design
2. What to do and to ask during product and service
design?
3. What are the main sources of design ideas?
4. Considerations
5. Service design
4-6
1. Why product and service
design?
4-7
? The essence of an organization is the goods and services it
offers
? Every aspect of the organization is structured around
them
? Product and service design – or redesign – should be
closely tied to an organization’s strategy
Instructor Slides
4-8
4-8
Percentage of Sales from New Products
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
Industry
leader
Top
third
Middle
third
Position of Firm in Its Industry
Bottom
third
Figure 5.2 4-9
New Product in Apple
Over 50% Sales from iPhone and iPad
4-10
? The driving forces for product and service design or
redesign are market opportunities or threats:
?
?
?
?
?
?
Economic
Social and Demographic
Political, Liability, or Legal
Competitive
Cost or Availability
Technological
Instructor Slides
4-11
4-11
With High-Tech IDs, Qantas Fliers Get a Fast,
Practically Paperless Experience
December 29, 2011
? http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB100014240
52970204296804577123004175940104
Instructor Slides
12
4-12
One Week, 3,000 New Products
The Wall Street Journal (July 3, 2014)
Quirky. Of the more than 206,000
ideas submitted since 2009, just 500,
or 0.2%, have made it into
development, and 132 to market.
Inventors receive 4% of revenue, with
an additional 6% split among members
of the broader community who suggest
product features, vote on tag lines or
contribute expertise in areas such as
electric engineering, material science
and product safety. The product
managers weed out the ideas they
think could face heavy competition, or
major technical challenges as well as
those with no ready retail partner,
before forwarding their top 10 picks,
http://online.wsj.com/articles/one-week-3-000-product-ideas-1404332942
which are winnowed further for Eval.
4-13
2.What to do and to ask during
product and service design?
4-14
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Translate customer wants and needs into product and service
requirements
Refine existing products and services
Develop new products and services
Formulate quality goals
Formulate cost targets
Construct and test prototypes
Document specifications
Translate product and service specifications into process
specifications
Involve Inter-functional Collaboration
Instructor Slides
4-15
4-15
1.
Is there a demand for it?
? Market size
? Demand profile
2.
Can we do it?
? Manufacturability – the capability of an organization to
produce an item at an acceptable profit
? Serviceability – the capability of an organization to provide
a service at an acceptable cost or profit
3.
What level of quality is appropriate?
? Customer expectations
? Competitor quality
? Fit with current offering
4.
Does it make sense from an economic standpoint?
? Liability issues, ethical considerations, sustainability issues,
costs and profits
Instructor Slides
4-16
4-16
The Future: Self-Driving Cars
Who’s Behind the Wheel?
Nobody. Wall Street Journal,
9/24/2012
The car was driving itself, digitally
duplicating a lap driven earlier by a
professional driver—a man now
sitting on the pit wall, watching the
car and me come and go.
Taken together, the costs of
automotive death ($300 billion) and
delay ($100 billion annually) equal
2.6% of GDP.
Our new robot chauffeurs can help.
The Video
4-17
The Future: Self-Driving Cars
Self-driving cars to be 9% of auto sales in 2035: Study
Sales of vehicles able to drive themselves will account for about 9 percent
of global auto sales in about two decades, according to a forecast
published on Tuesday by auto industry consultant IHS Automotive.
The study focused on autonomous cars, which can drive with “no attention
needed by the driver,” IHS analyst Egil Juliussen said. Such cars are not
currently available for sale, but IHS predicts they will hit the market around
2025. IHS expects global sales of self-driving cars in 2025 to be
230,000—less than 1 percent of the 115 million cars expected to be sold
that year.
http://www.cnbc.com/id/101302194
4-18
The Trump Card at Check-In
With High-Tech IDs, Qantas Fliers Get a
Fast, Practically Paperless Experience
http://online.wsj.com/
news/articles/SB1000
142405297020429680
457712300417594010
4
The Video
4-19
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Feasibility analysis
Product specifications
Process specifications
Prototype development
Design review
Market test
Product introduction
Follow-up evaluation
Instructor Slides
4-20
4-20
3. What are the main sources
of design ideas?
4-21
Idea Generation
?
Provides basis for entry into market
?
Sources of ideas
?
Market need (60-80%)
?
Engineering & Operations (20%)
?
Technology, competitors, inventions, employees
?
Very few ideas become marketable product
?
Crowdsourcing and new product development
4-22
Idea Generation
?
Crowdsourcing at P & G
4-23
? Ideas can come from anywhere in the supply
chain:
? Customers
? Suppliers
? Distributors
? Employees
? Maintenance and repair personnel
Instructor Slides
4-24
4-24
? By studying how a competitor operates and its
products and services, many useful ideas can be
generated
? Reverse engineering
? Dismantling and inspecting a competitor’s product to
discover product improvements
Instructor Slides
4-25
4-25
? Research and Development (R&D)
? Organized efforts to increase scientific knowledge or product
innovation
? Basic research
? Has the objective of advancing the state of knowledge about a
subject without any near-term expectation of commercial
applications
? Applied research
? Has the objective of achieving commercial applications
? Development
? Converts the results of applied research into useful commercial
applications.
Instructor Slides
4-26
4-26
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/30/technolo
gy/solving-problems-for-real-world-usingdesign.html
Instructor Slides
27
4-27
4. Issues to consider
1)
2)
3)
Sustainability – Reduce, ruse and
recycle
Product cycle
Quality Development
4-28
? Designers are often under pressure to
? Speed up the design process
? Cut costs
? These pressures force trade-off decisions
? What if a product has bugs?
? Release the product and risk damage to your reputation
? Work out the bugs and forego revenue
Instructor Slides
4-29
4-29
? Sustainability
? Using resources in ways that do not harm ecological systems that
support human existence
? Key aspects of designing for sustainability
? Cradle-to-grave assessment (Life-Cycle assessment)
? End-of-life programs
? The 3-Rs
? Reduction of costs and materials used
? Re-using parts of returned products
? Recycling
Instructor Slides
4-30
4-30
? Cradle-to-Grave Assessment
? aka Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)
? The assessment of the environmental impact of a
product or service throughout its useful life
? Focuses on such factors as
?
?
?
?
Global warming
Smog formation
Oxygen depletion
Solid waste generation
? LCA procedures are part of the ISO 14000 environmental
management procedures
Instructor Slides
4-31
4-31
Instructor Slides
4-32
4-32
? Strategies for product or service life stages
? Standardization
? Product or service reliability
? Product or service robustness
? Degree of newness
Instructor Slides
4-33
4-33
? Mass customization
? A strategy of producing basically standardized goods or
services, but incorporating some degree of
customization in the final product or service
? Facilitating Techniques
? Delayed differentiation
? Modular design
Instructor Slides
4-34
4-34
? http://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-
fi-tn-ces-2014-why-3d-printing-matters20140109,0,2759022.story#axzz2q1hbV1B6
Instructor Slides
35
4-35
? Value analysis
? Examination of the function of parts and materials in an effort to
reduce the cost and/or improve the performance of a product
? Common questions used in value analysis
? Is the item necessary; does it have value; could it be eliminated?
? Are there alternative sources for the item?
? Could another material, part, or service be used instead?
? Can two or more parts be combined?
? Can specifications be less stringent to save time or money?
? Do suppliers/providers have suggestions for improvements?
? Can packaging be improved or made less costly?
LO 4.8
4-36
LO 4.9
4-37
? Standardization
? Extent to which there is an absence of variety in a
product, service, or process
? Products are made in large quantities of identical items
? Every customer or item processed receives essentially the
same service
LO 4.10
4-38
4-39
? Begins with a choice of service strategy, which
determines the nature and focus of the service, and
the target market
? Key issues in service design
? Degree of variation in service requirements
? Degree of customer contact and involvement
LO 4.11
4-40
? Characteristics
? Being consistent with the organization mission
? Being user-friendly
? Being robust if variability is a factor
? Being easy to sustain
? Being cost-effective
? Having value that is obvious to the customer
? Having effective linkages between back- and front-of-the-house
operations
? Having a single, unifying theme
? Having design features and checks that will ensure service that is
reliable and of high quality
LO 4.12
4-41
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Define the service package in detail
Focus on the operation from the customer’s perspective
Consider the image that the service package will present both to
customers and to prospective customers
Recognize that designers’ familiarity with the system may give them
a quite different perspective than that of the customer, and take steps
to overcome this
Make sure that managers are involved and will support the design
once it is implemented
Define quality for both tangibles and intangibles
Make sure that recruitment, training, and reward policies are
consistent with service expectations
Establish procedures to handle both predictable and unpredictable
events
Establish system to monitor, maintain, and improve service
LO 4.13
4-42
Strategic Capacity
Planning for
Products and
Services
Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Capacity Planning for Harry
Potter’s World
1.
2.
Describe yield management.
What else can Universal do to improve throughput?
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/03/11/business/media/harr
y-potter-wizzarding-world-universal-studios-hollywood.html?_r=1
5-2
? Capacity planning impacts all areas of the organization
? It determines the conditions under which operations will have to function
? Flexibility allows an organization to be agile
? It reduces the organization’s dependence on forecast accuracy and reliability
? Many organizations utilize capacity cushions to achieve flexibility
? Bottleneck management is one way by which organizations can enhance
their effective capacities
? Capacity expansion strategies are important organizational considerations
? Expand-early strategy
? Wait-and-see strategy
? Capacity contraction is sometimes necessary
? Capacity disposal strategies become important under these
conditions
Instructor Slides
5-3
5-3
#1. What is Capacity?
• Definition
• Goal
• Issues: What, How Large, When to Change
5-4
#2: Capacity Measurement
• Strategic
• Design, Effective, Actual Capacity
• How to calculate
5-5
#3: Strategies
• Steps
• Safety Capacity/Capacity Cushion
• Forecasting: Short and Long-term
• In-house or Out-source
5-6
#4: Constraints and Optimal Levels
• Bottleneck
• Optimal
• Economy and diseconomy of scale
5-7
#5: Analysis Methods
• Cost-volume analysis
• Financial analysis
• Decision theory
• Waiting-line analysis
• Simulation
5-8
What Happens When Disney, Universal, and
Legoland Reach Capacity
Legoland ‘reached its capacity’ – Windsor Express
www.windsorexpress.co.uk/…/Legoland-reached-its-capacity-260820…
Aug 26, 2012 – Legoland ‘reached its capacity’. Traffic chaos as power cut shuts LEGOLAND Visitors to
Legoland in Winkfield Road are being turned away …
Legoland Florida hits capacity on Dec. 28 – Orlando Business Journal
www.bizjournals.com/…/legoland-florida-hits-capacity-on-dec.html
Dec 28, 2011 – Legoland Florida, Central Florida’s newest park, informed followers on Twitter…
5-9
What Happens When Disney, Universal, and
Legoland Reach Capacity
While the rest of the country is enjoying the brief holiday respite, here in Orlando–with temperatures in the
70’s– the theme parks are jammed. So much so that most reached capacity this week as crowds crushed
into the parks. The Orlando Sentinel (Dec.29, 2011) reported that Legoland Florida (our newest park),
Universal Studios, and 3 of Disney’s 4 theme parks (Magic Kingdom, Hollywood Studios, and Animal
Kingdom) all reached capacity this week and had to temporarily shut their gates. Traffic was so heavy that
drivers were warned it would take an extra 45-60 min. just to exit Interstate I-4.
How do the companies handle the surge–and losses from turning away customers willing to pay the $85 a
day admission fees? Legoland simply closed its parking lot at 12:30 pm. It also extended its operating
hours by 1.5 hours to 8:30pm. Universal similarly hit capacity at 12:30 pm and stopped admitting guests.
But it set up a queue for customers to wait outside the park and allowed them to enter as early arrivals
fizzled out and went back to their hotels. Universal also delayed closing, from 11 pm till midnight.
Disney’s tactic was different. It limited access to guests staying at hotels that it owns, to people with highpriced tickets (like park-hoppers or annual passes), and to those who had made dining reservations inside
one of the parks. At 2:30 pm, Disney then resumed normal admission.
The theme parks also bring in extra workers, open more food and drink stations, add more parades and
street entertainment–anything to keep the visitors happy once they enter.
Discussion questions:
1. How does this differ from issues other service firms (like hospitals, restaurants, etc.) face when they
are at capacity?
2. How does Disney’s policy differ from its competitors?
5-10
UPS, FedEx scramble to deliver delayed Christmas
packages
Two of the nation’s biggest package shippers hit the road Thursday, scrambling to deliver boxes to angry
customers who didn’t receive the gifts they ordered in time for Christmas.
UPS and FedEx, under fire for failing to deliver Santa’s packages in time for the holiday, blamed the delays
on weeks of bad weather and higher demand from soaring online sales.
UPS didn’t make pickups or deliveries on Christmas Day, but it brought in extra workers on Christmas night
to the company’s hub in Louisville, Ky., to sort packages for Thursday and Friday deliveries, a
spokesperson for the company told The Associated Press. Some FedEx customers were able to pick up
packages at local FedEx Express centers on Christmas Day.
5-11
Apple stores await Ahrendts touch as outlets
struggle with growing demand
Apple stores await Ahrendts touch as outlets struggle with growing demand
Former Burberry boss Angela Ahrendts needs to find way to cut queues without losing magic of original
Apple stores
It’s only a two-hour wait. An ordinary Thursday afternoon at Apple’s flagship UK store in Regent Street,
London and a long line of customers snakes across the first floor. The hip technology brand is used to
queues for the launch of its latest must-have product, but these people have come carrying faulty iPhones
and malfunctioning laptops, desperate for help from one of Apple’s increasingly hard to reach “Genius”
experts.
http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/oct/18/apple-stores-ahrendts-struggle-demand
5-12
Gearing Up Capacity at FedEx and UPS
DALLAS (AP) — Facing an even bigger mountain of packages this holiday season, FedEx and UPS are hiring more workers to
avoid the delays that frustrated shoppers and gift-recipients a year ago.
Last December, the delivery giants were caught off-guard by bad weather and a surge in last-minute online shopping. An
estimated 2 million packages were late at Christmas.
On Wednesday, FedEx Corp. said it expects deliveries between Thanksgiving and Christmas Eve to rise 8.8 percent over last
year, to 290 million shipments. Volume is expected to surge on each of the first three Mondays in December, with FedEx
predicting a peak of 22.6 million shipments on Monday, Dec. 15.
The delivery companies and Internet retailers are benefiting from a strengthening economy and optimism about consumer
spending. At the same time, they’re dealing with consumers who increasingly enjoy the ease of shopping on computers and
mobile devices but expect the goods to show up almost as quickly as if they had shopped at a store. That expectation is often
fed by online retailers, who hold out the promise of free delivery until right before Christmas.
http://www.sdcexec.com/news/11748379/to-meet-the-demand-of-sales-online-retailers-such-as-amazon-and-the-delivery5-13
companies-are-hiring-more-workers
Skinnier Seats on More Crowded Planes
http://online.wsj.com/articles/skinnier-seats-on-more-crowded-planes-1414602406
Delta, United, American, Southwest and other airlines around the world have installed seats with trim metal frames and
ultrathin cushions, squeezing rows closer together to pack more people on each flight. Three-quarters of Delta’s domestic fleet
and one-quarter of United’s now have the new slim-line seating.
5-14
Auto Makers Dare to Boost Capacity
The auto industry’s recent fat profits from rising demand for new cars in North
America is about to confront the law of supply and demand: A string of new factories
in the region will start cranking out more than a million cars over the next few years.
A large increase in production capaci …
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