Sociology Discussion 250

Paragraph I: Go to the “Background to the study” section on pages 1-4 of the article. How many different references do the authors refer to throughout this section? Overall, what do these references in the background section have in common regarding gender and academic achievement? Hint – count the different in-text citations.Paragraph II: Review the list of “Objectives of the study” and the list of “Research questions”. What did you learn from these sections? How would you change the 4 research questions, and make them applicable to colleges in the state of California?Paragraph III: Which recommendation from pages 7-8 do you disagree with the most (you must make a choice), and why? What new recommendation can you write to replace the one you disagree with?
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University of Nebraska – Lincoln
DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln
Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)
Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln
2015
Influence of Gender Difference on Reading Habit
and Academic Achievement of Undergraduate
Medical Students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Sunday O. Ladipo Rev.
LASUCOM, Ikeja Lagos, sundayladipo@gmail.com
Sunmade Ajibola GBOTOSHO Mr
Osun State University, sunmadeajibola@gmail.com
Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac
Part of the Library and Information Science Commons
Ladipo, Sunday O. Rev. and GBOTOSHO, Sunmade Ajibola Mr, “Influence of Gender Difference on Reading Habit and Academic
Achievement of Undergraduate Medical Students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria” (2015). Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal).
1338.
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/1338
Influence of Gender Difference on Reading Habit and Academic Achievement of
Undergraduate Medical Students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Sunday Olusola LADIPO
Medicine Library
Lagos State University College of Medicine
Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria
sundayladipo@gmail.com
+2348037531025
and
Sunmade Ajibola GBOTOSHO
Osun State University
Osogho Campus
Osun State, Nigeria
sunmadeajibola@gmail.com
Abstract
This study investigated the extent to which gender difference determine the reading habit and
academic achievement of undergraduate medical students of University of Ibadan.
Questionnaire was used to collect data from four hundred and twenty nine medical students
randomly selected from the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Findings from
the study revealed gender difference in the academic achievement of medical students in favour
of male students. On the other hand, there was no gender difference in the reading habit of
medical students. Findings on relationships between gender and academic achievement
established a positive relationship just as a positive relationship was established between
reading habit of medical students and their academic achievement. The study recommended the
need for school authorities to work towards ensuring that the gender gap in the academic
achievement of medical students is bridged while library and information resources should be
provided to encourage development of favorable reading culture among the medical students.
Keyword: Gender difference, Reading habit, Academic achievement
Background to the study
Academic achievement is very important in any educational setting, as it indicates the level of
students’ competence in respect of the academic content. This is typically defined in terms of
performance, and grades which represent the most obvious and universally accepted indicator of
academic achievement in educational contexts. Indeed, academic achievement does create
competition among students, and it may remove the focus from the academic content of a course,
but it is a prerequisite in order to obtain success at university, and equally important in life after
university (Harackiewicz, Barron and Elliot, 1998). The academic achievement of students
determines whether he or she is considered to be successful or not, and as a result, academic
achievement is very important in education.
One of the most topical issues in the current debate all over the world has been that of gender
differences and academic achievement among students in schools. Hence, it is crucial to know
and to understand which factors are responsible for determining, predicting or for causing
variance in academic achievement. Fergusson and Horwood (1997) reported pervasive
differences in the school achievement of males and females with males having lower scores on
all standardised tests; being uniformly rated as performing less well in the areas of reading,
written expression, mathematics and spelling, and at age 18, having lower success rates in
School Certificate examinations, higher rates of reading delay and more often leaving school
without qualifications. According to them, the consistently poorer academic achievement of
males was due to the fact that males were cognitively less able than females.
Abdu-Raheem (2012) in his study on gender differences and students’ academic achievement
reported that there was no significant different between the achievement mean scores of male
and female student in the experimental and control groups. This is an indication that gender has
no significant contribution to the achievement of student.
On the other hand, variation in reading between male and female students has also been found to
have implications on their academic achievement. Reading habit according to Orasamu (1982) as
cited by Issa, Aliyu, Akangbe and Adedeji (2012) refers to the art of interpreting printed and
written words. Greene (2001) is of the opinion that reading habit is best formed at a young
impressionable age in school, but once formed it can last one’s life. Once a child has been taught
to read and develop love for books, he or she can explore for himself or herself the wealth of
human experience and knowledge. Children, missing the opportunity of getting in touch with
books at this stage, find it hard to acquire good reading habit in their later years. According to
Issa, Aliyu, Akangbe and Adedeji (2012) reading habit is an intellectual action which is possible
only if a man has formed the habit of reading and practicing it since childhood.
The reading habit refers to the frequency of reading, and the average time spent on reading
materials. Cleary cited in Abeyrathna (2004) stated that an individual’s interest is determined to a
considerable extent by the amount of reading materials he will read and the intensity with which
he will pursue his reading activity. By reading books, one gets confirmation or rejection of one’s
own ideas, which makes one think more critically about right and wrong in the society (Bergland
in Abeyrathna, 2004). Nonetheless, Bas (2012) emphasized a favourable reading habit as a
prerequisite for a healthy intellectual growth and plays a very crucial role in enabling a person to
achieve practical efficiency. Bas (2012) established through his findings that, reading habit of
high school students showed a significant difference according to gender variable in favour of
female students.
Similarly, according to Okebukola (2004), through acquiring good reading habit, humans
possess the tools to transmit knowledge to each succeeding generation. Besides, it allows one to
listen to the wisdom and people of the ages. This is emphasized by many different religious
traditions. Reading habit is a vital factor affecting intellectual and emotional growth. The
individual who reads well has a means for widening mental horizons and for multiplying
opportunities of success. For an undergraduate student to be successful in his studies, he/she
needs to acquire efficient reading habit. She/he needs not only to read more materials but also to
2
learn how to do so with great comprehension. A student is expected to read very widely and at
the same time be able to reproduce much of what he/she has read.
Reading, a lifelong habit, is the major source of access to the knowledge. It is taken as an
implicit practice that supports an individual to achieve original power and develops one’s critical
thinking capability. Reading habit, thus, is considered as an essential means for the development
of personal traits, mental abilities, getting knowledge, information and understanding of an
individual (Clark & Rumbold, 2006). According to Özbay (2006), individual reading preferences
differ in terms of interest, attention, aptitude and situation. Reading interest, curiosity or
inclination seems to be different with boys and girls having different reading habits and reading
aptitudes such that girls enjoy reading more than boys. Clark and Foster (2005) are of the view
that girls prove to be more positive than boys towards reading. But in school years, boys read
more for getting a good job in future while girls read for fun and for some break. Gender and
background have an effect on reading abilities of students. Reading habit is essential and it can
leave a positive impact on all age groups. Gaining knowledge is a good way, but it must be
constructive knowledge, it must facilitate a man to get on in a profession and pass an
examination. Dilshad, Adnan and Akram (2013) investigated gender differences in reading
habits of university students and reported that reading habits of male and female students are
somewhat different which is in consistent with the results of Frankenstein’s (2009) study, who
stated that boys and girls have different choices when it comes to reading. Shafi and Loan (2010)
also found that gender was major factor impacting students’ reading habits and female students
were better than male students in reading culture.
Moreover, studies have shown that girls and boys differ in their reading attitudes and other
measures of motivation, with girls typically having more positive attitudes toward reading,
demonstrating more positive reading self-concept, and engaging more often in reading activities
outside of school (Gambell & Hunter, 1999; Mullis, Martin, Gonzalez, & Kennedy, 2003;
Meece, Glienke, & Burg, 2006). These differences have often been cited as explanation of
national and international results showing that girls have higher reading achievement than boys
(Wagemaker, 1996; Mullis, Martin, Gonzalez & Kennedy, 2003; Perie, Grieg, & Donahue,
2005). While boys and girls differ in many of their reading habits and behaviors, these
differences tend to be smaller within the top-achieving group, with the gap between boys and
girls increasing within the low-achieving group. It is apparent from these results that the bottom
third of the boys’ achievement distribution are at a more serious disadvantage than bottomachieving girls, both in terms of their average reading achievement and their reading habits and
attitudes (Kennedy, 2010).
The gender of the student may also be a factor in determining student performance. Dayioglu
and Turut-Asik (2004) in their study of gender differences in academic achievement in a large
public university in Turkey reported a high gender disparity in various spheres of public life and
the patriarchal social structure in Turkey as a major factor that may lead to poorer academic
performance among female university students.
The debate on gender differences in cognitive abilities has actually evolved out of the debate on
biological vs. social determinism. The biological perspective on sex differences and cognitive
performance considers social factors to be trivial or subordinate to biological factors like brain
3
structure. Lynn in several of his studies (Lynn, 1999; Allik, Must and Lynn, 1999; Colom and
Lynn, 2004) asserted that males have larger average brain sizes than females and therefore,
would be expected to have higher average Intelligent Qoutients. Mackintosh (1998), on the other
hand, claims that there is no sex difference in general intelligence. Mackintosh proposes that
general intelligence should be defined as reasoning ability and that the best measure of this is the
Progressive Matrices.
This study therefore seeks to investigate gender differences in reading habit and academic
achievement of university students in selected federal universities in south-west, Nigeria. This
study founds relevance in the growing literature on demographic variables determining reading
habit and academic achievement of undergraduate students in Nigeria and consequently profer
solution to gender disparities associated with reading habit and academic achievement of
university students in Nigeria.
Objectives of the study
The broad objective of the study is to investigate gender differences in reading habit and
academic achievement of university students in selected federal universities in south-west,
Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
1. find out if there is gender difference in the academic achievement of undergraduate
students in federal universities in south-west, Nigeria;
2. find out if there is gender difference in the reading habit of undergraduate students in
federal universities in south-west, Nigeria;
3. examine the relationship between reading habit and academic achievement of
undergraduate students in federal universities in south-west, Nigeria; and
4. examine the relationship between gender and academic achievement of undergraduate
students in federal universities in south-west, Nigeria.
Research questions
The following questions were answered in this study:
1. Is there any gender difference in reading habit of undergraduate students in federal
universities in south-west, Nigeria?
2. Is there any gender difference in reading habit of undergraduate students in federal
universities in south-west, Nigeria?
3. What relationship exists between reading habit and academic achievement of
undergraduate students in universities in South-West, Nigeria?
4. What relationship exists between gender and academic achievement of undergraduate
students in universities in South-West, Nigeria?
Research Methodology
The survey research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study comprises
one thousand seven hundred and eighteen (1,718) 300 and 400 level undergraduate medical
students in the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The other levels (500-600
levels) students were exempted because majority of them are unavailable at the time of
collecting data for this study due to their involvement in other important academic activities
relating to their programmes. The simple random sampling technique was used to select 25.0%
4
of the total population of medical students under study. Thus, 429 undergraduate medical
students were selected for the study.
Qyestionnaire and records of academic achievement of undergraduate medical students were the
major instruments of data collection adopted for this study. The record of academic achievement
contains results of the undergraduate medical students which reflected their cumulative grade
point average. This is aimed at having information on the academic achievement of the students.
The questionnaire was given to the experts in the fields of library and information studies for
content validity. Their inputs on the adequacy and appropriateness of the items were recorded to
determine the content validity ratio of the instrument. Also, the questionnaires were trial-tested
on some undergraduate medical students at Obafemi Awolowo University who were not part of
the respondents selected for the study. This was to ensure the reliability of the instruments.
Discussion of Findings
A total of 429 copies of questionnaire were administered on the undergraduate students out of
which only 378 were returned with useful responses. This gives a response rate of 88.1% which
is considered adequate for this study. Therefore, the analysis and presentation of results were
based on the 378 useful responses received.
Research question 1: Is there any gender difference in reading habit of undergraduate
medical students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria?
Table 1: Summary of Gender Difference in Academic Achievement of Medical Students
Sex of Respondents
N
Mean Standard Deviation Standard
Error Sig
Mean
Academic achievement Male
244 3.36 1.235
.056
.003
Female 134 3.11 1.195
.062
Information gathered from Table 1 revealed a significant mean difference in the academic
achievement of undergraduate medical students at the University of Ibadan in favour of the male
students (Mean = 3.36, p>0.05). This is suffice to say that male undergraduate medical students
in University of Ibadan perform better than their female counterparts.
Research question 2: Is there any gender difference in reading habit of undergraduate
medical students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria?
Table 2: Summary of Gender Difference in Reading Habit of Medical Students
Sex of Respondents
N
Mean Standard Deviation
Standard
Error Sig
Mean
Reading habit
Male
202
1.94 0.674
.031
.816
Female
176
1.93 0.667
.035
Table 2 presents information on gender difference in reading habit of undergraduate medical
students in University of Ibadan. It revealed a non-significant difference in the reading habit of
both male (Mean = 1.94, p<0.05) and female (Mean = 1.93, p<0.05) undergraduate medical 5 students in University of Ibadan. This implies that there is no difference in the reading habit of both male and female undergraduate medical students in University of Ibadan, Research question 3: What relationship exists between reading habit and academic achievement of undergraduate medical students in University of Ibadan, Nigeria? Table 3: Summary of Relationship Between Reading Habit and Academic Achievement of Medical Students Variables ? SD r r2 P Remark Reading 1.93 .671 .007 .000 .843 Not Sig habit Academic 3.25 1.223 achievement Correlation Significant at *p<0.01 level Table 3 presents information on the relationship between reading habit and academic achievement of undergraduate medical students in University of Ibadan and it revealed that there is a weak positive relationship and non-significant relationship between reading habit and academic achievement of undergraduate medical students (r = .007, p > 0.05). It can therefore be
inferred that reading habit of undergraduate medical students in University of Ibadan does not
have any effect on their academic achievement. This is also supported with the information that
for every one level increase in the reading habit of the students no increase was recorded in the
academic achievement of undergraduate students (r2 = .000).
Research question 4: What relationship exists between gender and academic achievement
of undergraduate medical students in University of Ibadan?
Table 4: Summary of Relationship Between Gender and Academic Achievement of Medical
Students
Variables
?
SD
r
r2
P
Remark
Gender
1.43
.496
.101
.010
.003
Sig
Academic
3.25
1.001
achievement
Correlation Significant at *p<0.01 level. Information gathered from Table 4 revealed a weak positive relationship between gender and academic achievement of undergraduate medical students in University of Ibadan (r = .101, p<0.05) which implies that gender of medical students could determine their academic achievement. Discussion of findings Findings from the study revealed a significant difference in the academic achievement of undergraduate medical students in favour of male medical students. This finding is in support of Dayioglu and Turut-Asik (2004) which reported a higher gender disparity in academic achievement of students in a large public university in Turkey but at variance with AbduRaheem (2012) study which reported that there was no significant difference in the mean scores 6 of male and female students. On the gender difference in reading habit of undergraduate medical students in University of Ibadan, finding from the study revealed no significant difference in reading habit of both male and female medical students which is at variance with findings from Dilshad, Adnan and Akram (2013) study on gender differences in reading habits of university students which reported that reading habits of male and female students are somewhat different and that of Shafi and Loan (2010) who also found that gender was major factor impacting students’ reading habits and that female students were better than male students in reading culture. Findings on relationship between reading habit and academic achievement of undergraduate medical students revealed a positive relationship which implies that favourable reading habit could lead to improve academic achievement among undergraduate medical students. This finding corroborates findings from Premalakshmi (2012) study which reported that there is a significant and positive relationship between students’ academic achievem ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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