sociology urgent work needed

answer the following, the attached ppts may help you1. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the rise of urbanization?2. Compare the pros and cons of at least 2 different kinds of agriculture?


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C. 2015 W.H. FREEMAN & CO.
• All humans depend, directly or indirectly, on
agriculture for their survival.
The cultivation of domesticated crops and the raising
of domesticated animals.
• Agriculture remains the most important economic
activity in the world, using more land than any other
activity and employing about 40% of the working
Agricultural region:
A geographic region defined by a distinctive
combination of physical and environmental
conditions; crop type; settlement patterns; and labor,
cultivation, and harvesting practices.
• Colonialism, industrialization, and globalization have
altered existing agricultural practices and created
new types of agricultural regions.
• One prominent trend over the past 500 years is the
progressive, worldwide movement from extensive to
intensive cultivation and husbandry.
Extensive agriculture:
The practices of farming and livestock raising using
low levels of labor and capital relative to the areal
extent of land under production, relying chiefly on
natural soil fertility and prevailing climate.
Intensive agriculture:
The practices of farming and livestock raising using
high levels of labor and capital relative to the size of
the landholding, thus overcoming environmental
constraints through irrigation, land reclamation,
synthetic fertilizers, chemical pesticides and
herbicides, and genetic engineering.
Swidden cultivation:
A type of agriculture characterized by land rotation in which
temporary clearings are used for several years and then
abandoned to be replaced by new clearings; also known as
slash-and-burn agriculture.
• Different crops typically share the same clearing, a
practice called intercropping.
• The planting and harvesting cycle is repeated in the same
clearings for perhaps 3-5 years, until soil fertility begins to
decline …
• These fields then are temporarily left fallow, and new
clearings are prepared to replace them – shifting
FIGURE 8.1 A farmer in Tojo, central Sulawesi, Indonesia, surveys the results of
clearing and burning a patch of forest for planting. What looks like destruction
is actually part of a cycle that begins and ends in forest when swidden
cultivation is practiced sustainably. (Reuters/Yusuf Ahmad/Landov.)
• Ecologically sustainable and
has endured for millennia
• Some swidden systems have
actually enhanced biodiversity
• Returns more calories of food
for the calories spent on
cultivation than does modern
mechanized agriculture
• Can be environmentally
destructive under certain
• In poor countries with large landless
populations, a front of pioneer
swidden farmers often advance on
• When a population experiences a
sudden increase in growth rate and
political or social conditions restrict
its mobility, the sustainability of
swidden may be diminished
Paddy rice farming:
The cultivation of rice on a paddy, or small flooded field
enclosed by mud dikes, practiced in the humid areas of
the Far East.
• A paddy rice farm of 3 acres (1 hectare = 2.47 acres) is
usually adequate to support a family.
• A system of irrigation that can deliver water when and
where it is needed is key to success.
• Large amounts of fertilizer must be applied.
• Paddy farmers often plant and harvest the same parcel
of land twice per year – double-cropping.
FIGURE 8.2 Cultivation of rice on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Paddy rice
farming traditionally entails enormous amounts of human labor and yields
very high productivity per unit of land. What are the disadvantages of such a
system? (Denis Waugh/Stone/Getty Images.)
• Small-scale farmers who own their fields, rely chiefly on
family labor, and produce both for their own subsistence
and for sale in the market – often represent a distinctive
folk culture and socioeconomic class strongly rooted in
the land.
• Dominant grain crops in these regions are wheat, barley,
sorghum, millet, oats, and maize.
• Common cash crops include cotton, flax, hemp, coffee,
and tobacco.
• These farmers also raise herds of cattle, pigs, sheep, and,
in South America, llamas and alpacas.
FIGURE 8.3 Peasant grain, root, and livestock agriculture in Africa. Peasant
farmers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo prepare their field for
planting. The photo illustrates the important role of women’s labor in African
food production. (Brent Stirton/Getty Images for WWF-Canon.)
Plantation agriculture:
A system of monoculture for producing export crops
requiring relatively large amounts of land and capital;
originally dependent on slave labor.
A large landholding devoted to specialized production of
a tropical cash crop.
• The plantation system originated in the 1400s on
Portuguese-owned sugarcane-producing islands off the
coast of tropical West Africa, but the greatest
concentrations now exist in the American tropics,
Southeast Asia, and tropical South Asia.
FIGURE 8.5 Sugar producers of the twenty-first century. Sugarcane plantations
have expanded into nearly every tropical and subtropical region in the
world. Brazil’s production now dwarfs that of the historically prominent
producers of the Caribbean. (Source: UNFAO.)
• Workers usually live right on the plantation, where a rigid
social and economic segregation of labor and
management produces a two-class society of the wealthy
and the poor.
• Tension between labor and management is not
• Plantations maximize the production of luxury crops for
Europeans and Americans.
• Much of the profit from plantations is exported, along with
the crops, to Europe and North America – source of
political friction between the global North and South.
Market gardening (truck farming):
Farming devoted to specialized fruit, vegetable, or
vine crops for sale rather than consumption.
• Market gardening is found in developed countries
and raises no livestock.
• Many truck farmers participate in cooperative
marketing arrangements and depend on migratory
seasonal farm laborers to harvest their crops.
FIGURE 8.8 Market gardening in the United States’ Pacific Northwest.
Marketing gardening (or truck farming) often specializes in one kind of crop.
A common market garden crop in the Pacific Northwest is hops, grown
mostly for beer brewing. (Gary J. Weathers/Tetra images RF/Getty Images.)
Livestock fattening:
A commercial type of agriculture that produces fattened
cattle and hogs for meat.
• In the Corn Belt of the U.S. Midwest, farmers raise corn
and soybeans to feed cattle and hogs.
• Typically, slaughterhouses are located close to feedlots,
creating a new meat-producing region, which is often
dependent on mobile populations of cheap immigrant
• Farmers breed many of the animals they fatten,
especially hogs – feedlot system.
FIGURE 8.9 Cattle feedlot for beef production. This feedlot, in Colorado, is
reputedly the world’s largest. What ecological problems might such an
enterprise cause? (Glowimages/Getty Images.)
• A specialized type of agriculture in which farmers
grow primarily wheat, rice, or corn for commercial
• Wheat belts stretch through Australia, the Great
Plains of North America, the steppes of Russia and
Ukraine, and the pampas of Argentina.
• Farms are generally very large, and widespread
use of machinery, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides,
and genetically engineered seed varieties enables
grain farmers to operate on this scale.
FIGURE 8.10 World’s top wheat producers. Mechanized grain farming has
spread rapidly over the past few decades, introducing new leading players
into the global spotlight. (Source: UNFAO.)
Suitcase farm:
In American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on
which no one lives; planting and harvesting are done
by hired migratory crews.
• Found in the Wheat Belt of the northern Great Plains
of the United States.
• Such highly mechanized, absentee-owned, largescale operations, or agribusinesses, have mostly
replaced the small, husband- and wife-operated
American family farm.
FIGURE 8.12 Mechanized
wheat harvest on the
Great Plains of the United
States. An aerial view of
combines harvesting
wheat near Colorado.
North American grain
farmers operate in a
capital-intensive manner,
investing in machines,
chemical fertilizers, and
pesticides. What long-term
problems might such
methods cause? What
benefits are realized in
such a system?
• In many ways, the specialized production of dairy
goods closely resembles livestock fattening.
• Depends on the large-scale use of pastures.
• Dairy products vary from region to region,
depending, in part, on how close the farmers are to
their markets.
• In recent decades a rapidly increasing number of
dairy farmers have adopted the feedlot system and
now raise their cattle on feed purchased from other
sources – rely on hired labor to maintain herds.
Nomadic livestock herder:
A member of a group that continually moves with its
livestock in search of forage for its animals.
• Nomads’ few material possessions must be portable,
including tents used for housing.
• Typically, in nomadic cultures, wealth is based on the
size of livestock holdings rather than on accumulation of
property and personal possessions.
• Some national governments established policies
encouraging nomads to practice sedentary cultivation
of the land – easier control by central governments.
FIGURE 8.13 Nomadic pastoralists in West Africa. This household in Chad is
moving their livestock to new pastures. Mobility is key to their successful use
of the variable and unpredictable environment of this region of Africa. They
are taking with them all of their possessions, including their shelter—a hut,
which they have packed on top of their cows. (Michael Nichols/National
Geographic/Getty Images.)
The commercial raising of herd livestock on a large landholding.
• Livestock ranchers:
?Have fixed places of residence and operate as individuals.
?Raise livestock on a large scale for market.
?Are found in areas with environmental conditions too harsh for
crop production.
?Raise only two kinds of animals in large numbers: cattle and
Urban agriculture:
The raising of food, including fruit, vegetables, meat, and
milk, inside cities, especially common in the Third World.
• In China, urban agriculture now provides 90% or more of
all the vegetables consumed in the cities.
• Urban agriculture is increasingly important to family
income and food security in West Africa.
• According to the WHO, the promotion of local food
production in European cities will aid in reducing urban
poverty and inequalities.
FIGURE 8.14 Urban agriculture. Farmers work a rice field near Antananarivo,
Madagascar. Urban agriculture is a critical food source for many African city
dwellers. (Martin Harvey/Gallo Images/Getty Images.)
The cultivation, under controlled conditions, of aquatic
organisms, primarily for food but also for scientific and
aquarium uses.
A branch of aquaculture specific to the cultivation of
marine organisms, often involving the transformation of
coastal environments and the production of distinctive
new landscapes.
• At the turn of the 21st century, aquaculture was growing
nearly 4x faster than all terrestrial animal food-producing
sectors combined.
FIGURE 8.16 Global aquaculture and fisheries. Aquaculture is expanding
rapidly around the globe, led by China, the world’s top producer. Virtually
all mariculture takes place within countries’ 200-mile coastal territory known
as the EEZ (exclusive economic zone). The EEZ is also the site of most
commercial fishing, which has greatly depleted wild fish stocks and raised
the need for increased mariculture production. (Source: Global Education
Project, Fishing and Aquaculture.)
• Most commercial aquaculture relies on large energy
and chemical inputs (e.g., antibiotics and artificial feeds
made from wastes of poultry and hog processing) …
tends to concentrate toxins in farmed fish, creating a
potential health threat to consumers.
• Discharge from fish farms can pollute nearby natural
aquatic ecosystems.
• Around the tropics, especially tropical Asia, the
expansion of commercial shrimp farms is contributing to
the loss of highly biodiverse coastal mangrove forests.
FIGURE 8.15 Emerging mariculture landscapes. As mariculture expands,
coastal landscapes and ecosystems are transformed, as in the case of
marine fish farming off Langkawi Island, Malaysia. (© age
• Areas of extreme climate, particularly deserts and
subarctic forests, do not support any form of agriculture
(e.g., much of Canada and Siberia).
• Often these areas are inhabited by hunting-andgathering groups of native peoples, such as the Inuit,
who gain a livelihood by hunting game, fishing where
possible, and gathering edible and medicinal wild
• Given the various inroads of the modern world, even
these people rarely depend entirely on hunting and
• In most hunting-and-gathering societies, a division of
labor by gender occurs.
• Agriculture and its many components are
inventions; they arose as innovations in certain
source areas and diffused to other parts of the
Cultural diffusion:
The spread of elements of culture from the point of
origin over an area.
• Agriculture probably began with the domestication of
• A domesticated plant is one that is deliberately planted,
protected, cared for, and used by humans.
• Plant domestication and improvement constituted a
process, not an event – can still be observed.
• The widespread association of female deities with
agriculture suggests that it was women who first worked
the land.
• Most experts now believe that the process of
domestication was independently invented at
many different times and locations – at least nine
• The first farmers were probably sedentary folk rather
than migratory hunter-gatherers.
• Until recently, archaeological evidence suggested
that the oldest center is the Fertile Crescent, where
crops were first domesticated roughly 10,000 years
ago, but domestication dates for other regions are
constantly being pushed back by new discoveries.
FIGURE 8.17 Ancient centers of plant domestication. New archaeological
discoveries and new technologies such as genetic science are changing our
understanding of the geography and history of domestication. This map
represents a synthesis of the latest findings. (Source: Diamond, 2002.)
Domesticated animal:
An animal kept for some utilitarian purpose whose
breeding is controlled by humans and whose survival is
dependent on humans; domesticated animals differ
genetically and behaviorally from wild animals.
• Animal domestication apparently occurred later than
did the first planting of crops—with the probable
exception of the dog.
• Early farmers in the Fertile Crescent deserve credit for the
first great animal domestications, most notably that of
herd animals – also the first to combine domesticated
plants and animals in an integrated system.
• European exploration and colonialism were
instrumental in redistributing a wide variety of crops
on a global scale (relocation diffusion) – continues
• Our understanding of agricultural diffusion includes
an analysis of cultures and indigenous technical
knowledge systems in which they are embedded.
Indigenous technical knowledge:
Highly localized knowledge about environmental
conditions and sustainable land-use practices.
Green revolution:
The recent introduction of high-yield hybrid crops and
chemical fertilizers and pesticides into traditional Asian
agricultural systems, most notably paddy rice farming, with
attendant increases in production and ecological
• In some countries (e.g., India), the green revolution
diffused rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. By
contrast, countries such as Myanmar resisted the
revolution, favoring traditional methods.
• An uneven pattern of acceptance still characterizes
paddy rice areas today.
• Poorer farmers—the great majority of India’s
agriculturists—could not afford capital expenditures for
chemical fertilizer and pesticides, and the gap between
rich and poor farmers widened.
• Many of the poor became displaced and flocked to
overcrowded cities of India, aggravating urban
• The use of chemicals and poisons on the land
heightened environmental damage.
• The widespread adoption of hybrid seeds has created a
loss of plant diversity or genetic variety.
• Agriculture, more than any other modern economic
endeavor, is constrained by the rhythms of nature.
• Farmers need to mobilize a large labor force for
harvesting crops, but keeping a year-round work
force raises farm production costs …
• The use of migrant workers has been central to the
growth and profitability of farming in the United
States – has employed cultural and racial
stereotypes to depress farm wages and tighten
employers’ control over farmworkers.
FIGURE 8.19 Migrant farmworkers: a global phenomenon. International
migrant farmworkers, such as these African immigrants harvesting lettuce in
southern Spain, are critical to production in the global food system.
(Mark Eveleigh/Alamy.)
• Exploration, colonization, and globalization created
new regional cuisines, and simplified the global diet to
a disproportionate reliance on only three grains:
wheat, rice, and maize.
• A global food system now exists that has freed
consumers in affluent regions from the constraints of
local ecologies.
• The emphasis on a relatively small number of staple
crops desired by northern consumers can mean the
abandonment of local crop varieties and a decline in
associated biological diversity.
• Geographers and others have long tried to understand
the distribution and intensity of agriculture based on
transportation costs to market.
Tendency of both formal and functional culture regions to
consist of a core or node, in which defining traits are
purest or functions are headquartered, and a periphery
that is tributary and displays fewer of the defining traits.
• Von Thünen created the core–periphery model to study
the influence of distance from market and the
concurrent transport costs on the type and intensity of
FIGURE 8.21 Von Thünen’s isolated-state model. The model is modified to fit the modern
world better, showing the hypothetical distribution of types of commercial agriculture.
Other causal factors are held constant to illustrate the effect of transportation costs
and differing distances from the market. The more intensive forms of agriculture, such
as market gardening, are located nearest the market, whereas the least intensive form
(livestock ranching) is most remote. Compare this model to the real-world pattern of
agricultural types …
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