Stats project second part. spreed sheet work required.

Administer the data collection tool you created in the Topic 2 assignment. Using the data you collect, create an Excel table and complete the items below.Create two frequency tables based on two separate questions from your survey.Create a bar graph and a pie chart based on the data in the frequency tables.Determine the class intervals and create frequency distribution for each of the frequency tables.Create one frequency polygon of the data from the frequency distribution.Create an individual Excel document for each of the required items.
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HOW DOES EXERCISE AFFECT
HEART RATE
1
How Does Exercise Affect Heart Rate?
Background:
Heart rate and exercise intensity have a positive correlation: as exercise intensity
increases, heart rate increases as well. The rate of increase and the maximum increase are
determined by factors such as weight, age, gender and specific circumstances. According to a
study found in phisiology.org, resting heart rate did not differ among old to young groups of
participants. But maximal heart rate was highest in the younger participants and lower in the
older participants.1 The younger participants could reach a higher maximal and submaximal
heart rate than the older participants.
Another study suggests that a dynamic warm up might increase flexibility from the
resting state without the potential for injury that going straight to increasing levels of activity
would present.2 Static stretching puts the least amount of strain on the participant and is expected
to have the lowest heart rate after resting. Running puts the greatest strain on the participant and
is expected to be maximal or close to maximal of the participants VO2 max. In order of intensity:
Resting, Static Stretching, Dynamic Stretching, Walking, Jogging and Running.
Research Question: How does increasing exercises intensity of 15-18-year-olds affect hart rate
measure in bpm?
Hypothesis: If exercise intensity increases, then heart rate measure in bpm will increase.
1
Tulppo, M. P., Mäkikallio, T. H., Seppänen, T., Laukkanen, R. T., & Huikuri, H. V. (1998,
February 01). Vagal modulation of heart rate during exercise: effects of age and physical fitness.
Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/274/2/H424.full
2
http://www.touchontheball.com/downloads/Dynamic%20vs%20Static%20Stretching%20Article%201.pdf
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2
Variables
Identified Variable
Independent
Exercise Intensity:
How to control
Static stretching (calf stretch),
Dynamic stretching (knee to
chest),
Walking,
Jogging,
Running
Dependent
Heart rate (bpm ±2)
Control
Time(seconds)
Each person will do the
exercise for exactly one
minute
Environment
All participants will do the
exercises in the same
hallway on the same day
Age group(years)
All participants will be
seventeen years old
Tools (Stopwatch)
The same tools will be
used in each trial and when
testing each intensity
2
3
Materials:
1. Stopwatch
Procedures:
1. Have the participant perform all activities within the same day and general time
2. Check and make sure the participant filled out and is eligible from the PAR-Q form
3. Have the participants preform the sit and reach and quad stretch alternating legs, for two
minutes each before proceeding to the experiment, in order to prevent injury.
4. Allow participants to rest for five minutes after stretching to return heart rate to normal
5. Measure the resting heart rate of the participant to get a baseline heart rate between each
exercise and trial.
6. Allow the participant to perform the static exercise (calf stretch)- put left foot in front of
the right foot, bending the front knee and keeping the back leg straight. The participant
should feel a stretch in their calf.
7. Time this exercise for 60 seconds.
8. Record the participant’s heart rate in bpm(have the participant count the number of heart
beats for thirty seconds, the multiply by two) after the preformed exercise.
9. Allow the participants heart rate to return back to their baseline resting heart rate before
proceeding to the next exercise and trial.
10. Allow the participant to perform the dynamic exercise (knee-to-chest)- grab below the
front part of the knee and pull your leg to your chest, then alternate legs as you walk
11. Time this exercise for 60 seconds.
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4
12. Record the participant’s heart rate in bpm manually after the preformed exercise.
13. Allow the participants heart rate to return back to their baseline resting heart rate before
proceeding to the next exercise and trial.
14. Allow the participant to perform the next variable(walking)- keep an even pace
15. Time this exercise for 60 seconds.
16. Record the participant’s heart rate in bpm manually after the preformed exercise.
17. Allow the participants heart rate to return back to their baseline resting heart rate before
proceeding to the next exercise and trial.
18. Allow the participant to perform the next variable(jogging)-keep an even pace
19. Time this exercise for 60 seconds.
20. Record the participant’s heart rate in bpm manually after the preformed exercise.
21. Allow the participants heart rate to return back to their baseline resting heart rate before
proceeding to the next exercise and trial.
22. Allow the participant to perform the next variable(running)-keep an even pace
23. Time this exercise for 60 seconds.
24. Record the participant’s heart rate in bpm manually after the preformed exercise.
25. Allow the participants heart rate to return back to their baseline resting heart rate before
proceeding to the next exercise and trial.
26. Repeat steps 6-24 for two more trials
4
5
Risk Assessment:
Prior to the participant’s participation they must all fill out a PAR-Q to establish their
eligibility to complete the following exercises in the experiment, if the participants are deemed
unfit or unable to complete the exercise they are unable to be a part of the experiment. This
experiment is a sub-maximal test so the participants will not be harmed. Prior to exercise the
participants will stretch to decrease probability of injury as their muscles will warmed which,
increasing muscle elasticity. After all exercises participants will do a cool down stretch to break
up lactic acid which will limit soreness after exercise. The participants will remain anonymous as
there is no distinction between male and female.
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6
Analysis:
The Measurement of Heart Rate in (bpm±2) with Increasing Exercise Intensity for 60 Seconds
in 17-Year-old Females and Males
Static
bpm ±2
Dynamic Walking Jogging Running
bpm ±2 bpm ±2 bpm ±2 bpm ±2
Trial 1
75
114
120
132
180
Trial 2
74
110
119
134
185
Trial 3
70
120
124
136
183
Trial 4
72
117
123
135
184
Trial 5
73
120
121
132
182
Trial 6
75
118
123
134
188
Trial 7
74
110
125
135
186
Trial 8
70
120
127
129
182
Trial 9
73
117
124
139
183
Trial 10
73
120
123
135
184
Trial 11
74
120
121
132
182
Trial 12
70
120
124
136
183
Trial 13
71
117
123
135
184
Trial 14
72
120
121
132
182
Trial 15
75
119
121
132
182
Trial 16
74
110
123
134
188
Trial 17
70
120
125
135
186
Trial 18
72
117
127
129
182
Trial 19
73
118
124
139
183
Trial 20
75
115
123
135
184
Trial 21
74
121
127
132
182
Trial 22
70
124
125
135
184
Trial 23
73
116
121
132
182
Trial 24
73
118
124
136
183
Trial 25
74
119
123
135
184
Trial 26
70
123
125
132
182
Trial 27
71
122
123
132
182
Trial 28
72
118
123
134
188
Trial 29
77
123
124
136
190
Trial 30
74
125
128
137
189
Average
72.8
118
123
134
184
Standard Deviation 2
4
2
2
2
6
7
Qualitative Data:
Subject has increased ventilation and perspiration with increased body temperature with
increased heart rate. The testing was done within a climate controlled area where the temperature
was room temperature +/- 1 degree. No weather conditions affected the testing as it was
performed indoors within a controlled environment. The subject experienced the most fatigue
after the sprinting trials as opposed to the lower intensity exercises. The duration to return to
resting heart rate after each trial was short and was relatively the same amount of time each trial.
Processed Data:
Mean –
•
The mean determines the average heart beat per exercise intensity, allowing investigators
to analyze the effects of exercise on heart beat with ease
•
Mean formula
• Sample Calculation: Static exercise
(75+74+70+72+73)/5=72.8; rounded to 73
Standard Deviation •
Is used to determine the variability the results of the experiment possess
•
Standard Deviation formula:
•
Sample Calculation: Static exercise
(75-73)² + (74-73)² + (70-73)² + (72-73)² + (73-73)² = 15
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(15)/(5-1) =3.75
3.75^½= 1.936 rounded to 2
Coefficient of Determination–
•
Is used to determine how closely the data fits against the regression line. The higher the
r² value the more closely related the data is to the regression line
Trends:
8
9
As the intensity of exercise increased, the heart rate increased as well. The errors bars
depict a small standard deviation, and that with each exercise and trial, the heart rate was closely
consistent with the mean and less variable. Sprinting and static stretching were significantly
different from dynamic stretching, walking, and jogging. This shows that they are the most and
least demanding on cardiac muscles respectively. Dynamic stretching, walking, and jogging were
not significantly different, showing that exercise intensity between the three variables exerted a
similar heart rates. The r² value shows the correlation between exercise intensities and the heart
rate, since the r² value is high it means that the data is close to the regression line. As the
regression line is linear it shows a positive correlation between increasing exercise intensity and
the heart rate.
Conclusion:
The hypothesis of the experiment stated that increased exercise intensity would yield an
increased heart rate. The hypothesis was proved correct through this experiment as the exercise
intensities chosen had a positive correlation with increased average heart rate. Static stretching
averaged 73 bpm, dynamic stretching had 116 bpm, walking had 121 bpm, jogging had 134 bpm,
and running had 183 bpm. This relationship is a result of the body’s increased need for oxygen
which allows the muscles to sustain higher exercise intensities. The body needs to deliver more
oxygen to the muscles and release carbon dioxide, increasing respiration and heart rate through
the increased oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide removal. Respiration of the body increases since
the body receives oxygen through inspiration during ventilation, the heart’s systemic system then
transports oxygen from respiration to the rest of the body and collects carbon dioxide to remove
from the blood. At each intensity level this process happened at a quicker rate to satisfy the needs
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of the body’s muscles, because of this the breathing rate and heart rate of the subject would
increase with increased exercise intensity.
3
The strengths of our experiment were that the data was consistent and it was accurately
recorded using the same equipment every time. The test had a wide variety of independent
variables and the participant was allowed to return to resting heart rate before the subsequent
trial was performed, thus increasing the consistency of the data. Another strength of the
experiment was the strict controls that were implemented and followed. The test was performed
on the same day under the same conditions that were constant and controlled throughout the
entire experiment.
Throughout the experiment, errors that could have impacted our data is the use of
multiple different participants. Each participant is slightly different and the data could have been
affected by this. All participants display the same age, but the difference in gender generate
differences in size as well affecting the fluidity and accuracy of the data, opposed to using one
participant and gender throughout all trials. This difference further could have imposed whether
the results would have been significantly different or not to other variables tested. Improvements
that could have been made in this experiment, is the use of materials. When measuring the
participant’s heart rate, it was measured manually by having the participant count the number of
heart beats for 30 seconds, then multiply that number by 2. Instead of using this as a tool of
3
“Standard Grade Bitesize Biology – Changing levels of performance : Revision, Page 4.” BBC, BBC,
www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/standard/biology/the_body_in_action/changing_levels_of_performance/revision/
4/.
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11
measurement, a heart rate monitor could have been used in order to provide a better accuracy,
and provide a more immediate response after the performed exercise.
11
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References
Tulppo, M. P., Mäkikallio, T. H., Seppänen, T., Laukkanen, R. T., & Huikuri, H. V. (1998,
February 01). Vagal modulation of heart rate during exercise: effects of age and physical
fitness. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from
http://ajpheart.physiology.org/content/274/2/H424.full
http://www.touchontheball.com/downloads/Dynamic%20vs%20Static%20Stretching%20
Article%201.pdf
12

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