Strategic management case

Name of the case: Carlsberg,case 4Please read the case in the PDF of the book I sent you, and answer to this question:Identify the reasons for Carlsberg A/S? mergers and acquisitions (M&As)? What type of the M&A strategy does Carlsberg A/S use?
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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Competitiveness & Globalization
Concepts and Cases
12e
Michael A. Hitt
Texas A&M University
and
Texas Christian University
R. Duane Ireland
Texas A&M University
Robert E. Hoskisson
Rice University
Australia ? Brazil ? Japan ? Korea ? Mexico ? Singapore ? Spain ? United Kingdom ? United States
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Strategic Management: Competitiveness &
Globalization: Concepts and Cases, 12e
© 2017, 2015 Cengage Learning®
Michael A. Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, and
Robert E. Hoskisson
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To My Family:
I love each and every one of you. Thank you for all of your love and
support.
? Michael, Dad, Papa
To Mary Ann:
?Now everyone dreams of a love lasting and true.? This was my dream
that you have completely fulfilled. Thank you for all of the love, support,
and encouragement throughout our life together.
? R. Duane Ireland
To Kathy:
My love for you is eternal, and I hope that we can be eternally together.
Thanks for all the support and love you?ve given me throughout my life.
? Bob
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Brief Contents
Preface, xiii
About the Authors, xx
Part 1: Strategic Management Inputs
1.
Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness, 2
2.
The External Environment: Opportunities, Threats, Industry Competition,
and Competitor Analysis, 38
3.
The Internal Organization: Resources, Capabilities, Core Competencies,
and Competitive Advantages, 76
Part 2: Strategic Actions: Strategy Formulation
4.
Business-Level Strategy, 108
5.
Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics, 142
6.
Corporate-Level Strategy, 172
7.
Merger and Acquisition Strategies, 204
8.
International Strategy, 236
9.
Cooperative Strategy, 276
Part 3: Strategic Actions: Strategy Implementation
2
108
308
10. Corporate Governance, 308
11. Organizational Structure and Controls, 344
12. Strategic Leadership, 382
13. Strategic Entrepreneurship, 416
Part 4: Case Studies
C-1
Name Index, I-1
Company Index, I-20
Subject Index, I-23
iv
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
Preface xiii
About the Authors xx
Part 1: Strategic Management Inputs 2
1: Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness 2
Opening Case: Alibaba: An Online Colossus in China Goes Global 3
1-1 The Competitive Landscape 7
1-1a The Global Economy 8
1-1b Technology and Technological Changes 10
Strategic Focus: Starbucks Is ?Juicing? Its Earnings per Store through Technological Innovations 11
1-2 The I/O Model of Above-Average Returns 14
1-3 The Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns 16
1-4 Vision and Mission 18
1-4a Vision 18
1-4b Mission 19
1-5 Stakeholders 19
Strategic Focus: The Failure of BlackBerry to Develop an Ecosystem of Stakeholders 20
1-5a Classifications of Stakeholders 21
1-6 Strategic Leaders 25
1-6a The Work of Effective Strategic Leaders 25
1-7 The Strategic Management Process 26
Summary 28 ? Key Terms 28 ? Review Questions 29 ? Mini-Case 29 ? Notes 30
2: The External Environment: Opportunities, Threats, Industry
Competition, and Competitor Analysis 38
Opening Case: Are There Cracks in the Golden Arches? 39
2-1 The General, Industry, and Competitor Environments 41
2-2 External Environmental Analysis 43
2-2a Scanning 43
2-2b Monitoring 44
2-2c Forecasting 44
2-2d Assessing 45
2-3 Segments of the General Environment 45
2-3a The Demographic Segment 45
2-3b The Economic Segment 48
2-3c The Political/Legal Segment 49
2-3d The Sociocultural Segment 50
2-3e The Technological Segment 51
2-3f The Global Segment 52
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
v
vi
Contents
2-3g The Sustainable Physical Environment Segment 53
Strategic Focus: Target Lost Its Sway Because Tar-zhey No Longer Drew the Customers 54
2-4 Industry Environment Analysis 55
2-4a Threat of New Entrants 56
2-4b Bargaining Power of Suppliers 59
2-4c Bargaining Power of Buyers 60
2-4d Threat of Substitute Products 60
2-4e Intensity of Rivalry among Competitors 60
2-5 Interpreting Industry Analyses 63
2-6 Strategic Groups 63
Strategic Focus: Watch Out All Retailers, Here Comes Amazon; Watch Out Amazon, Here Comes
Jet.com 64
2-7 Competitor Analysis 65
2-8 Ethical Considerations 67
Summary 68 ? Key Terms 68 ? Review Questions 68 ? Mini-Case 69 ? Notes 70
3: The Internal Organization: Resources, Capabilities, Core
Competencies, and Competitive Advantages 76
Opening Case: Data Analytics, Large Pharmaceutical Companies, and
Core Competencies: A Brave New World 77
3-1 Analyzing the Internal Organization 79
3-1a The Context of Internal Analysis 79
3-1b Creating Value 81
3-1c The Challenge of Analyzing the Internal Organization 81
3-2 Resources, Capabilities, and Core Competencies 84
3-2a Resources 84
Strategic Focus: Strengthening the Superdry Brand as a Foundation to Strategic Success 85
3-2b Capabilities 88
3-2c Core Competencies 89
3-3 Building Core Competencies 89
3-3a The Four Criteria of Sustainable Competitive Advantage 89
3-3b Value Chain Analysis 93
3-4 Outsourcing 96
3-5 Competencies, Strengths, Weaknesses, and Strategic Decisions 96
Strategic Focus: ?We?re Outsourcing that Activity but Not That One? I?m Surprised!? 97
Summary 98 ? Key Terms 99 ? Review Questions 99 ? Mini-Case 100 ? Notes 101
Part 2: Strategic Actions: Strategy Formulation 108
4: Business-Level Strategy 108
Opening Case: Hain Celestial Group: A Firm Focused on ?Organic? Differentiation 109
4-1 Customers: Their Relationship with Business-Level Strategies 112
4-1a Effectively Managing Relationships with Customers 112
4-1b Reach, Richness, and Affiliation 113
4-1c Who: Determining the Customers to Serve 114
4-1d What: Determining Which Customer Needs to Satisfy 114
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
4-1e How: Determining Core Competencies Necessary to Satisfy Customer Needs 115
4-2 The Purpose of a Business-Level Strategy 116
4-3 Types of Business-Level Strategies 117
4-3a Cost Leadership Strategy 118
4-3b Differentiation Strategy 122
Strategic Focus: Apple vs. Samsung: Apple Differentiates and Samsung Imperfectly Imitates 126
4-3c Focus Strategies 127
4-3d Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation Strategy 129
Strategic Focus: RadioShack?s Failed Focus Strategy: Strategic Flip-Flopping 130
Summary 134 ? Key Terms 135 ? Review Questions 135 ? Mini-Case 135 ? Notes 136
5: Competitive Rivalry and Competitive Dynamics 142
Opening Case: Does Google Have Competition? Dynamics of the High Technology
Markets 143
5-1 A Model of Competitive Rivalry 146
5-2 Competitor Analysis 147
5-2a Market Commonality 147
5-2b Resource Similarity 148
Strategic Focus: Does Kellogg Have the Tiger by the Tail or Is It the Reverse? 150
5-3 Drivers of Competitive Behavior 150
5-4 Competitive Rivalry 152
5-4a Strategic and Tactical Actions 152
5-5 Likelihood of Attack 153
5-5a First-Mover Benefits 153
5-5b Organizational Size 155
5-5c Quality 156
5-6 Likelihood of Response 157
5-6a Type of Competitive Action 157
5-6b Actor?s Reputation 158
5-6c Market Dependence 158
5-7 Competitive Dynamics 159
5-7a Slow-Cycle Markets 159
5-7b Fast-Cycle Markets 161
5-7c Standard-Cycle Markets 162
Strategic Focus: The Ripple Effect of Supermarket Wars: Aldi Is Changing the Markets in Many
Countries 163
Summary 164 ? Key Terms 166 ? Review Questions 166 ? Mini-Case 166 ? Notes 167
6: Corporate-Level Strategy 172
Opening Case: Disney Adds Value Using a Related Diversification Strategy 173
6-1 Levels of Diversification 175
6-1a Low Levels of Diversification 176
6-1b Moderate and High Levels of Diversification 177
6-2 Reasons for Diversification 178
6-3 Value-Creating Diversification: Related Constrained and Related
Linked Diversification 179
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
vii
viii
Contents
6-3a Operational Relatedness: Sharing Activities 180
6-3b Corporate Relatedness: Transferring of Core Competencies 181
6-3c Market Power 182
6-3d Simultaneous Operational Relatedness and Corporate Relatedness 184
6-4 Unrelated Diversification 185
6-4a Efficient Internal Capital Market Allocation 185
Strategic Focus: GE and United Technology Are Firms that Have Pursued Internal Capital Allocation
and Restructuring Strategies 186
6-4b Restructuring of Assets 187
6-5 Value-Neutral Diversification: Incentives and Resources 188
6-5a Incentives to Diversify 188
Strategic Focus: Coca-Cola?s Diversification to Deal with Its Reduced Growth in Soft Drinks 190
6-5b Resources and Diversification 192
6-6 Value-Reducing Diversification: Managerial Motives to Diversify 193
Summary 196 ? Key Terms 196 ? Review Questions 196 ? Mini-Case 197 ? Notes 198
7: Merger and Acquisition Strategies 204
Opening Case: Mergers and Acquisitions: Prominent Strategies for Firms Seeking to
Enhance Their Performance 205
7-1 The Popularity of Merger and Acquisition Strategies 206
7-1a Mergers, Acquisitions, and Takeovers: What Are the Differences? 207
7-2 Reasons for Acquisitions 208
Strategic Focus: A Merger of Equals: Making It Happen Isn?t Easy! 209
7-2a Increased Market Power 210
7-2b Overcoming Entry Barriers 211
Strategic Focus: Different Strategic Rationales Driving Cross-Border Acquisitions 212
7-2c Cost of New Product Development and Increased Speed to Market 213
7-2d Lower Risk Compared to Developing New Products 214
7-2e Increased Diversification 214
7-2f Reshaping the Firm?s Competitive Scope 215
7-2g Learning and Developing New Capabilities 215
7-3 Problems in Achieving Acquisition Success 216
7-3a Integration Difficulties 217
7-3b Inadequate Evaluation of Target 218
7-3c Large or Extraordinary Debt 219
7-3d Inability to Achieve Synergy 220
7-3e Too Much Diversification 221
7-3f Managers Overly Focused on Acquisitions 221
7-3g Too Large 222
7-4 Effective Acquisitions 222
7-5 Restructuring 224
7-5a Downsizing 224
7-5b Downscoping 224
7-5c Leveraged Buyouts 225
7-5d Restructuring Outcomes 225
Summary 227 ? Key Terms 228 ? Review Questions 228 ? Mini-Case 228 ? Notes 230
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Contents
8: International Strategy 236
Opening Case: Netflix Ignites Growth Through International Expansion, But Such
Growth Also Fires Up the Competition 237
8-1 Identifying International Opportunities 239
8-1a Incentives to Use International Strategy 239
8-1b Three Basic Benefits of International Strategy 241
8-2 International Strategies 243
8-2a International Business-Level Strategy 243
8-2b International Corporate-Level Strategy 246
Strategic Focus: Furniture Giant IKEA?s Global Strategy 248
8-3 Environmental Trends 250
8-3a Liability of Foreignness 250
8-3b Regionalization 251
8-4 Choice of International Entry Mode 252
8-4a Exporting 253
8-4b Licensing 253
8-4c Strategic Alliances 254
8-4d Acquisitions 255
8-4e New Wholly Owned Subsidiary 256
8-4f Dynamics of Mode of Entry 257
8-5 Risks in an International Environment 258
8-5a Political Risks 258
8-5b Economic Risks 259
Strategic Focus: The Global Soccer Industry and the Effect of the FIFA Scandal 260
8-6 Strategic Competitiveness Outcomes 262
8-6a International Diversification and Returns 262
8-6b Enhanced Innovation 263
8-7 The Challenge of International Strategies 264
8-7a Complexity of Managing International Strategies 264
8-7b Limits to International Expansion 264
Summary 265 ? Key Terms 266 ? Review Questions 266 ? Mini-Case 266 ? Notes 268
9: Cooperative Strategy 276
Opening Case: Google, Intel, and Tag Heuer: Collaborating to
Produce a Smartwatch 277
9-1 Strategic Alliances as a Primary Type of Cooperative Strategy 279
9-1a Types of Major Strategic Alliances 279
9-1b Reasons Firms Develop Strategic Alliances 281
9-2 Business-Level Cooperative Strategy 284
9-2a Complementary Strategic Alliances 284
9-2b Competition Response Strategy 286
9-2c Uncertainty-Reducing Strategy 287
9-2d Competition-Reducing Strategy 287
Strategic Focus: Strategic Alliances as the Foundation for Tesla Motors? Operations 288
9-2e Assessing Business-Level Cooperative Strategies 290
9-3 Corporate-Level Cooperative Strategy 290
9-3a Diversifying Strategic Alliance 291
Copyright 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
ix
x
Contents
9-3b Synergistic Strategic Alliance 291
9-3c Franchising 291
9-3d Assessing Corporate-Level Cooperative Strategies 292
9-4 International Cooperative Strategy 292
9-5 Network Cooperative Strategy 293
9-5a Alliance Network Types 294
9-6 Competitive Risks with Cooperative Strategies 295
Strategic Focus: Failing to Obtain Desired Levels of Success with Cooperative Strategies 296
9-7 Managing Cooperative Strategies 297
Summary 299 ? Key Terms 300 ? …
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