structural functionalism

3 parts1000 WORDSExplain the basics of structural functionalism and then use it to describe race. Include in your answer what types of functions a functionalist would claim race and racism serve (How does using the concept of race create stability and harmony) and if you think structural functionalism is the proper way to view race in the United States. Be sure to explain why you think it is a good way or not a good way. Some keywords to include are: functions, dysfunction, moralCompare and contrast race, ethnicity, sex, and gender. Include in your answer how they are similar and how they are different from one another (Usually a good idea to directly compare race and sex and then ethnicity and gender to one another). Which one do you think has caused more inequality in our country? Please use statistics from lecture and the book or from the provided link below. Do you think if you used different statistics your answer might be different? (Hint: Open the attached .pdf below and read the section entitled “Race and Hispanic Origin”. Then look at Figure 2 in the same document. That should give you all the information you need to make a direct comparison for the year 2015 in terms on income.)Describe the differences and similarities between folkways, mores, and laws. Provide a definition and example of each. Also, discuss what anomie is and its connection to norms. Be sure to discuss what types of events would create anomie on a national or worldwide scale. Lastly, include what type of things could erode anomie. Could the appearance of a charismatic leader? What else could?
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Income and Poverty in the United States: 2015
Current Population Reports
Bernadette D. Proctor, Jessica L. Semega, and Melissa A. Kollar
Issued September 2016
P60-256(RV)
Acknowledgments
The Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division of the Census Bureau ­
recognizes Carmen DeNavas-Walt for her 42 years of service with the Census Bureau.
Ms. DeNavas-Walt retired in 2015. She was the primary author of the income s
­ ection
of the Current Population Reports, Series P-60, for 25 years. Ms. DeNavas-Walt spent
her career committed to providing timely and accurate estimates of income and
­earnings and to measuring change in these national-level estimates. Her expertise,
dedication, and guidance will be greatly missed.
The Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division of the Census Bureau also
­recognizes Edward J. Welniak Jr. for his 24 years of service as the Chief of the Income
Statistics Branch. Mr. Welniak moved to a new position within the Census Bureau in
2016. Mr. Welniak spent his career providing guidance on and improving the collection of income data in the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic
Supplement, the American Community Survey, and two decennial censuses. His
­dedication, professionalism, and institutional knowledge are greatly appreciated.
Jessica L. Semega and Melissa A. Kollar prepared the income sections of this
report under the direction of Jonathan L. Rothbaum, Chief of the Income Statistics
Branch. Bernadette D. Proctor prepared the poverty section under the direction
of Ashley N. Edwards, Chief of the Poverty Statistics Branch. Trudi J. Renwick,
Assistant Division Chief for Economic Characteristics in the Social, Economic, and
Housing Statistics Division, provided overall direction.
David L. Watt and Susan S. Gajewski, Demographic Surveys Division, and
Tim J. Marshall and Lisa Cheok, Associate Directorate Demographic Programs,
­processed the Current Population Survey 2016 Annual Social and Economic
Supplement file.
Kirk E. Davis, Raymond E. Dowdy, Shawna Evers, Ryan C. Fung,
Chandararith R. Phe, and Tiffani Whaley programmed and produced the
­historical, detailed, and publication tables under the direction of Hung X. Pham,
Chief of the Tabulation and Applications Branch, Demographic Surveys Division.
Joseph Croos, Nghiep Huynh, and Rebecca A. Hoop, under the supervision of
David V. Hornick, all of the Demographic Statistical Methods Division, conducted
sample review.
Lisa Clement, Survey Director of the Current Population Survey, provided overall
direction for the survey implementation. Lisa Cheok and Aaron Cantu, Associate
Directorate Demographic Programs, and Roberto Picha, Agatha Jung, and
Johanna Rupp of the Information Technology Directorate prepared and p
­ rogrammed
the computer-assisted interviewing instrument used to conduct the Annual Social and
Economic Supplement.
Additional people within the U.S. Census Bureau also made significant c
­ ontributions
to the preparation of this report. John Hisnanick, Alexander E. Kellner,
Rachel Lindstrom, Laryssa Mykyta, Jose D. Pacas, Kirby G. Posey,
Sharon M. Stern, Lewis H. Warren, and Bruce H. Webster, Jr. reviewed the contents.
Census Bureau field representatives and telephone interviewers collected the data.
Without their dedication, the preparation of this report or any report from the
Current Population Survey would be impossible.
Linda Chen, Christine Geter, Donna Gillis, and Anthony Richards of
the Public Information Office provided publication management, graphics
design and ­composition, and editorial review for print and electronic media.
George E. Williams of the Census Bureau’s Administrative and Customer Services
Division provided ­printing management.
Income and Poverty in
the United States: 2015
Issued September 2016
P60-256(RV)
U.S. Department of Commerce
Penny Pritzker,
Secretary
Bruce H. Andrews,
Deputy Secretary
Economics and Statistics Administration
Justin Antonipillai,
Counselor, Delegated Duties of Under Secretary for
Economic Affairs
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
John H. Thompson,
Director
Suggested Citation
Proctor, Bernadette D., Jessica L. Semega,
and Melissa A. Kollar
U.S. Census Bureau,
Current Population Reports,
P60-256(RV),
Income and Poverty
in the United States: 2015,
U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC,
2016.
ECONOMICS
AND STATISTICS
ADMINISTRATION
Economics and Statistics
Administration
Justin Antonipillai,
Counselor, Delegated Duties of Under Secretary for
Economic Affairs
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
John H. Thompson,
Director
Nancy A. Potok,
Deputy Director and Chief Operating Officer
Enrique Lamas,
Associate Director for Demographic Programs
David G. Waddington,
Acting Chief, Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division
Contents
TEXT
Income and Poverty in the United States: 2015 ???????????????????????????????1
Introduction ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1
Source of Estimates ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????1
Statistical Accuracy ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????2
State and Local Estimates of Income and Poverty ????????????????????????????????2
Dynamics of Economic Well-Being ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????3
Supplemental Poverty Measure ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????4
Income in the United States ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????5
Highlights ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????5
Household Income ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????7
Type of Household ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????7
Race and Hispanic Origin ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????7
Age of Householder ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????7
Nativity ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????7
Region ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????8
Residence ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????8
Income Inequality ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????8
Equivalence-Adjusted Income Inequality ??????????????????????????????????????????????8
Earnings and Work Experience ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????10
Poverty in the United States ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????12
Highlights ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????12
Race and Hispanic Origin ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????12
Age ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????14
Sex ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????15
Nativity ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????15
Region ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????15
Residence ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????15
Work Experience ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????16
Disability Status ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????16
Educational Attainment ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????16
Families ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????17
Depth of Poverty ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????17
Ratio of Income to Poverty ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????17
Income Deficit ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????18
Shared Households ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????18
Alternative/Experimental Poverty Measures ???????????????????????????????????????20
National Academy of Sciences (NAS)-Based Measures ???????????????????20
Research Files ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????20
CPS Table Creator ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????20
Comments ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????20
U.S. Census Bureau
Income and Poverty in the United States: 2015 iii
TEXT TABLES
Table 1. Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2014 and 2015 ??????????6
Table 2. Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income:
2014 and 2015 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????9
Table 3. People in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2014 and 2015 ?????????????????????????????????????????????13
Table 4. Families in Poverty by Type of Family: 2014 and 2015 ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????16
Table 5. People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Thresholds by Selected
Characteristics: 2015 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????17
Table 6. Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status: 2015 ?????19
TEXT FIGURES
Figure 1. Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2015 ????????????????????????5
Figure 2. Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time,
Year-Round Workers 15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2015 ??????????????????????????????????????10
Figure 3. Total and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers With Earnings by Sex: 1967 to 2015 ????????????????????11
Figure 4. Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2015 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????12
Figure 5. Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2015 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????14
Figure 6. Poverty Rates by Age and Sex: 2015 ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????15
Figure 7. Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2015 ????????????????????18
iv Income and Poverty in the United States: 2015
U.S. Census Bureau
APPENDIXES
Appendix A. Estimates of Income ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 21
How Income Is Measured ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 21
Business Cycles ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 21
Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS)
Using Current Methods All Items: 1947 to 2015 ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 22
Cost-of-Living Adjustment ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 22
Poverty Threshold Adjustment ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 22
Appendix B. Estimates of Poverty ?????????? …
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