Supply and Demand in Healthcare Viability or Liability

For the economist, healthcare often defies traditional rational economic models, theories, and rules. The buying and selling of goods and services, in general, defines economic transactions. These goods and services are traded or sold for a specific negotiated value. In many instances, price is the determining factor in the completion of a business transaction.Healthcare is a derived demand, based on the perceived need to improve some condition or function. Healthcare demand differs from normal demand, because an individual does not control the onset of an illness nor its severity or duration. When this occurs, the demand for services increases regardless of the supply available or the cost associated with the care.In healthcare, goods and services are not negotiable, may indeed be life threatening, and may force providers of goods and services to accept prices not even closely approaching the value they have assigned to them. To further this Discussion, consider the question: how is a value assigned to a good or service that may be the only step between life and death? Also consider the following economic question, especially as it pertains to healthcare: Who drives the healthcare market—the supplier or consumer?By Day 7 of Week 6This week, assigned Presenters should post a PowerPoint presentation with detailed notes section that contains the following:Incorporation and analysis of the Learning Resources from this 2-week unit, including identification of any apparent gaps in the literatureAn original research topic related to the week’s literature (the proposed research topic can be related to the general topic for the week or to gaps in the literature for the week, or it can be related to a specific reading for the week)Background information on the research topic, including identification of principal schools of thought, tendencies in the academic literature, or commonalities that define the academic scholarship regarding your topicEvaluation of the main concepts with a focus on their application to business/management practice and their impact on positive social changeA minimum of 10 peer-reviewed, scholarly new referencesNote: The presentation must be in APA format and must incorporate direct evidence of addressing the Learning Objectives from this 2-week unit. Each of the content slides must include detailed notes/paragraphs with appropriate citation of peer-reviewed, scholarly references.Refer to the Presentation Format document for more information about the expected contents of your Presentation. For suggestions on creating an effective PowerPoint presentation, see the Learning Resources for Weeks 2–3.Refer to the Presentation Rubric for specific grading elements and criteria. Your Instructor will use this rubric to assess your work.In addition, all Participants should post an annotated bibliography of at least five additional resources related to the research topic by Day 7 of Week 6.Please note that I need to receive two documents.
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[Your Name Here]
Walden University
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References
Always include a reference list at the end of your
presentation, just like you would in a paper.
Reference list entries take the same format they
would in a paper:
Jones, P. (2004). This great book. New York, NY: Publisher.
Smith, W., & Cat, D. (2010). How to make a good presentation
great. Presentations Quarterly, 45(4), 56-59.
doi:10.123.45/abc
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Sample Annotated Bibliography
Student Name Here
Walden University
2
Sample Annotated Bibliography
Autism research continues to grapple with activities that best serve the purpose of
fostering positive interpersonal relationships for children who struggle with autism. Children
have benefited from therapy sessions that provide ongoing activities to aid autistic children’s
ability to engage in healthy social interactions. However, less is known about how K–12 schools
might implement programs for this group of individuals to provide additional opportunities for
growth, or even if and how school programs would be of assistance in the end. There is a gap,
then, in understanding the possibilities of implementing such programs in schools to foster the
social and thus mental health of children with autism.
Annotated Bibliography
Kenny, M. C., Dinehart, L. H., & Winick, C. B. (2016). Child-centered play therapy for children
with autism spectrum disorder. In A. A. Drewes & C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Play therapy in
middle childhood (pp. 103–147). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
In this chapter, Kenny, Dinehart, and Winick provided a case study of the treatment of a
10-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ADS). Kenny et al. described the
rationale and theory behind the use of child-centered play therapy (CCPT) in the treatment of a
child with ASD. Specifically, children with ADS often have sociobehavioral problems that can
be improved when they have a safe therapy space for expressing themselves emotionally through
play that assists in their interpersonal development. The authors outlined the progress made by
the patient in addressing the social and communicative impairments associated with ASD.
Additionally, the authors explained the role that parents have in implementing CCPT in the
3
patient’s treatment. Their research on the success of CCPT used qualitative data collected by
observing the patient in multiple therapy sessions.
CCPT follows research carried out by other theorists who have identified the role of play
in supporting cognition and interpersonal relationships. This case study is relevant to the current
conversation surrounding the emerging trend toward CCPT treatment in adolescents with ASD as
it illustrates how CCPT can be successfully implemented in a therapeutic setting to improve the
patient’s communication and socialization skills. However, Kenny et al. acknowledged that
CCPT has limitations—children with ADS, who are not highly functioning and or are more
severely emotionally underdeveloped, are likely not suited for this type of therapy.
Kenny et al.’s explanation of this treatments’s implementation is useful for professionals
in the psychology field who work with adolescents with ASD. This piece is also useful to parents
of adolescents with ASD, as it discusses the role that parents can play in successfully
implementing the treatment. However, more information is needed to determine if this program
would be suitable as part of a K–12 school program focused on the needs of children with ASD.
Stagmitti, K. (2016). Play therapy for school-age children with high-functioning autism. In A.A.
Drewes and C. E. Schaefer (Eds.), Play therapy in middle cildhood (pp. 237–255).
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Stagmitti discussed how the Learn to Play program fosters the social and personal
development of children who have high functioning autism. The program is designed as a series
of play sessions carried out over time, each session aiming to help children with high functioning
autism learn to engage in complex play activities with their therapist and on their own. The
4
program is beneficial for children who are 1- to 8-years old if they are already communicating
with others both nonverbally and verbally. Through this program, the therapist works with
autistic children by initiating play activities, helping children direct their attention to the activity,
eventually helping them begin to initiate play on their own by moving past the play narrative
created by the therapist and adding new, logical steps in the play scenario themselves. The
underlying rationale for the program is that there is a link between the ability of children with
autism to create imaginary play scenarios that are increasingly more complex and the
development of emotional well-being and social skills in these children. Study results from the
program have shown that the program is successful: Children have developed personal and social
skills of several increment levels in a short time. While Stagmitti provided evidence that the
Learn to Play program was successful, she also acknowledged that more research was needed to
fully understand the long-term benefits of the program.
Stagmitti offered an insightful overview of the program; however, her discussion was
focused on children identified as having high-functioning autism, and, therefore, it is not clear if
and how this program works for those not identified as high-functioning. Additionally, Stagmitti
noted that the program is already initiated in some schools but did not provide discussion on
whether there were differences or similarities in the success of this program in that setting.
Although Stagmitti’s overview of the Learn to Play program was helpful for
understanding the possibility for this program to be a supplementary addition in the K–12 school
system, more research is needed to understand exactly how the program might be implemented,
the benefits of implementation, and the drawbacks. Without this additional information, it would
5
be difficult for a researcher to use Stigmitti’s research as a basis for changes in other programs.
However, it does provide useful context and ideas that researchers can use to develop additional
research programs.
Wimpory, D. C., & Nash, S. (1999). Musical interaction therapy–Therapeutic play for children
with autism. Child Language and Teaching Therapy, 15(1), 17–28. doi:10.1037/14776014
Wimpory and Nash provided a case study for implementing music interaction therapy as
part of play therapy aimed at cultivating communication skills in infants with ASD. The
researchers based their argument on films taken of play-based therapy sessions that introduced
music interaction therapy. To assess the success of music play, Wimpory and Nash filmed the
follow-up play-based interaction between the parent and the child. The follow-up interactions
revealed that 20 months after the introduction of music play, the patient developed prolonged
playful interaction with both the psychologist and the parent. The follow-up films also revealed
that children initiated spontaneously pretend play during these later sessions. After the
introduction of music, the patient began to develop appropriate language skills.
Since the publication date for this case study is 1999, the results are dated. Although this
technique is useful, emerging research in the field has undoubtedly changed in the time since the
article was published. Wimpory and Nash wrote this article for a specific audience, including
psychologists and researchers working with infants diagnosed with ASD. This focus also means
that other researchers beyond these fields may not find the researcher’s findings applicable.
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This research is useful to those looking for background information on the
implementation of music into play-based therapy in infants with ASD. Wimpory and Nash
presented a basis for this technique and outlined its initial development. Thus, this case study can
be useful in further trials when paired with more recent research.

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