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Assignment 3: Design with UMLDue Week 7 and worth 120 pointsAdvanced Business Systems (ABS) is a consulting and staffing company providing specialized staffing and consulting services to clients in a variety of different industries. It has offices in major U.S. metro areas and has ongoing relationships with Fortune 500 companies. Its areas of services range from software development and network engineering to geo-information systems. It has fifty (50) plus regional offices in U.S. and five (5) offices in Canada. It plans to expand to other countries in the future.When an ABS client company determines that it will need a contractor or temporary professional, it issues a staffing request against the contract it had previously negotiated with ABS. The contract manager in ABS reviews the staff request and ensures that the request is valid with its current contract with its client from the database.If the request is not valid, the contract manager sends the staffing request back to the client and explains the reasons and asks for the need for starting a new contract.If the request is valid, the contract manager will start recruiting requests by putting the request into its staffing database. The staffing request is then sent to ABS placement department.In the placement department, the placement specialists will check the job requirements and candidates qualifications.If there is a qualified candidate, the specialist will notify the candidate and put a note in the database.If a qualified candidate cannot be found or not immediately available, the specialist notifies contract managers and recruiting department; the recruiting department starts search outside immediately.The recruiting department normally has thirty (30) days to find an outside candidate and send the qualified candidates to the placement department to review. If an internal qualified candidate is confirmed with his / her availability, the confirmation will be sent to the arrangement department. In the arrangement department, the candidate works with the specialists to further confirm the placement details, such as starting date, location, compensation (e.g., per diem), and travel arrangement. The final confirmation will be sent to the client along with a billing schedule. If the client agrees with the arrangement, he/she acknowledges the arrangement with contract managers in the contract department. The contract manager then puts a memo into its database and closes the request.Note: You may create and / or assume all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment.Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:Create a package diagram of the problem domain layer using the communication diagrams and the CRUDE matrix through the use of graphical tools in Microsoft Word or Visio, or an open source alternative such as Dia. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.Perform and explain the verification and validation walk-through of the package diagram.Create a set of invariants for attributes and relationships and add them to the CRC cards for each class in the structural model using Object Constraint Language (OCL).List the classes in the structure model. Choose one (1) class and create a contract for each method in that class. Note: Be sure to use OCL to specify the preconditions and the post conditions.Create a method specification for each method using both structured English and activity diagram for the algorithm specification through the use of graphical tools in Microsoft Word or Visio, or an open source alternative such as Dia. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.Use at least two (2) quality resources in this assignment.
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DENNIS
WIXOM
TEGARDEN
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN
An Object-Oriented Approach with UML
5 TH E D I T I O N
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System Analysis & Design
An Object-Oriented Approach with UML
Fifth Edition
Alan Dennis
Indiana University
Barbara Haley Wixom
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
David Tegarden
Virginia Tech
With contributions by Elaine Seeman,
East Carolina University
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Cover Image: © Christopher Boswell/Shutterstock
This book was set in 10/12 Minion pro by Aptara and printed and bound by Courier Kendallville. The cover
was printed by Courier Kendallville.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for more
than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Our company is
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Outside of the United States, please contact your local sales representative.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Dennis, Alan.
Systems analysis & design: an object-oriented approach with UML/Alan Dennis, Indiana University,
Barbara Haley Wixom, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, David Tegarden, Virginia Tech; with
contributions by Elaine Seeman, East Carolina University.–Fifth edition.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-118-80467-4 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. System analysis. 2. System design. 3. UML (Computer science) I. Wixom, Barbara Haley,
1969-II. Tegarden, David Paul. III. Seeman, Elaine. IV. Title. V. Title: System analysis and design.
QA402.D395 2015
004.2’1–dc23
2014048338
Printed in the United States of America
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1
PREFACE
PURPOSE OF THIS BOOK
Systems Analysis and Design (SAD) is an exciting, active field in which analysts continually
learn new techniques and approaches to develop systems more effectively and efficiently.
However, there is a core set of skills that all analysts need to know—no matter what
approach or methodology is used. All information systems projects move through the four
phases of planning, analysis, design, and implementation; all projects require analysts to
gather requirements, model the business needs, and create blueprints for how the system
should be built; and all projects require an understanding of organizational behavior concepts like change management and team building. Today, the cost of developing modern
software is composed primarily of the cost associated with the developers themselves and
not the computers. As such, object-oriented approaches to developing information systems
hold much promise in controlling these costs.
Today, the most exciting change to systems analysis and design is the move to
object-oriented techniques, which view a system as a collection of self-contained objects
that have both data and processes. This change has been accelerated through the creation of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). UML provides a common vocabulary of
object-oriented terms and diagramming techniques that is rich enough to model any systems development project from analysis through implementation.
This book captures the dynamic aspects of the field by keeping students focused on
doing SAD while presenting the core set of skills that we feel every systems analyst needs to
know today and in the future. This book builds on our professional experience as systems
analysts and on our experience in teaching SAD in the classroom.
This book will be of particular interest to instructors who have students do a major
project as part of their course. Each chapter describes one part of the process, provides
clear explanations on how to do it, gives a detailed example, and then has exercises for the
students to practice. In this way, students can leave the course with experience that will
form a rich foundation for further work as a systems analyst.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES
A Focus on Doing SAD
The goal of this book is to enable students to do SAD—not just read about it, but understand the issues so that they can actually analyze and design systems. The book introduces
each major technique, explains what it is, explains how to do it, presents an example, and
provides Your Turn opportunities with each chapter for students to practice each new technique before they do it for real in a project. The Your Turn boxes are posted online at www.
wiley.com/college/dennis. After reading each chapter, the student will be able to perform
that step in the system development process.
v
vi Preface
Rich Examples of Success and Failure
This book has a running online case study (accessible from www.wiley.com/go/dennis/
casestudy) about a fictitious health care company called Patterson Superstore. Each chapter of
the case study shows how the concepts are applied in situations at Patterson Superstore. In
this way, the running case serves as a template that students can apply to their own work.
Each chapter also includes numerous Concepts in Action boxes, which are posted online at
www.wiley.com/college/dennis. These boxes describe how real companies succeeded—and
failed—in performing the activities in the chapter. Many of these examples are drawn from
our own experiences as systems analysts.
Real World Focus
The skills that students learn in a systems analysis and design course should mirror
the work that they ultimately will do in real organizations. We have tried to make this
book as “real” as possible by building extensively on our experience as professional systems analysts for organizations, such as Arthur Andersen, IBM, the U.S. Department
of Defense, and the Australian Army. We have also worked with a diverse industry
advisory board of IS professionals and consultants in developing the book and have
incorporated their stories, feedback, and advice throughout. Many students who use
this book will eventually use the skills on the job in a business environment, and we
believe they will have a competitive edge in understanding what successful practitioners feel is relevant in the real world.
Project Approach
We have presented the topics in this book in the order in which an analyst encounters them
in a typical project. Although the presentation is necessarily linear (because students have
to learn concepts in the way in which they build on each other), we emphasize the iterative,
complex nature of SAD as the book unfolds. The presentation of the material should align
well with courses that encourage students to work on projects because it presents topics as
students need to apply them.
WHAT’S NEW IN THIS EDITION
¦ A completely new, expanded case study on an integrated health clinic delivery
system has been written to accompany the fifth edition. The entire case study is
posted online. At the end of each chapter in the text, a short synopsis of the case
is provided.
¦ The text has been streamlined to focus on the essentials and therefore, to enhance
student understanding. Selected materials like the “Your Turn” and “Concepts in
Action” boxes have been moved online and can be accessed at www.wiley.com/
college/dennis.
¦ Throughout the book, there is a greater emphasis on verifying, validating, and
testing, as well as the incremental and iterative development of systems.
¦ In Chapter 2, there is more content on Agile techniques, including scrum meetings, product backlog, and sprints.
¦ In Chapter 3, we have increased focus on software quality and user stories.
¦ We have added new examples throughout the book and clarified explanations to
help students learn some of the more difficult concepts.
Preface
vii
¦ Chapter 10 includes more coverage of mobile computing, including specifics on
navigation, input, and output. This chapter also has a new section on games,
multidimensional information visualization, augmented reality, and virtual reality.
¦ Chapter 11 includes new material on ubiquitous computing and the Internet of Things.
¦ Testing has been expanded in Chapter 12.
ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK
This book is loosely organized around the phases and workflows of the enhanced Unified
Process. Each chapter has been written to teach students specific tasks that analysts need
to accomplish over the course of a project, and the deliverables that will be produced from
the tasks. As students complete the chapters, they will realize the iterative and incremental
nature of the tasks in object-oriented systems development.
Chapter 1 introduces the SDLC, systems development methodologies, roles and
skills needed for a systems analyst, the basic characteristics of object-oriented systems,
object-oriented systems analysis, the Unified Process, and the UML. Chapter 2 presents
topics related to the project management workflow of the Unified Process, including project identification, system request, feasibility analysis, project selection, traditional project
management tools (including work breakdown structures, network diagrams, and PERT
analysis), project effort estimation using use-case points, evolutionary work breakdown
structures, iterative workplans, scope management, timeboxing, risk management, and
staffing the project. Chapter 2 also addresses issues related to the Environment and Infrastructure management workflows of the Unified Process.
Part One focuses on creating analysis models. Chapter 3 introduces students to an assortment of requirements analysis strategies a variety of requirements-gathering techniques that
are used to determine the functional and nonfunctional requirements of the system, and to a
system proposal. Chapter 4 focuses on constructing business process and functional models
using use-case diagrams, activity diagrams, and use-case descriptions. Chapter 5 addresses
producing structural models using CRC cards, class diagrams, and object diagrams. Chapter 6
tackles creating behavioral models using sequence diagrams, communication diagrams,
behavioral state machines, and CRUDE analysis and matrices. Chapters 4 through 6 also
cover the verification and validation of the models described in each chapter.
Part Two addresses design modeling. In Chapter 7, students learn how to verify and
validate the analysis models created during analysis modeling and to evolve the analysis
models into design models via the use of factoring, partitions, and layers. The students also
learn to create an alternative matrix that can be used to compare custom, packaged, and
outsourcing alternatives. Chapter 8 concentrates on designing the individual classes and
their respective methods through the use of contracts and method specifications. Chapter 9
presents the issues involved in designing persistence for objects. These issues include the
different storage formats that can be used for object persistence, how to map an objectoriented design into the chosen storage format, and how to design a set of data access and
manipulation classes that act as a translator between the classes in the application and
the object persistence. This chapter also focuses on the nonfunctional requirements that
impact the data management layer. Chapter 10 presents the design of the human–computer
interaction layer, where students learn how to design user interfaces using use scenarios,
windows navigation diagrams, storyboards, windows layout diagrams, user interface
prototypes, real use cases, interface standards, and user interface templates; to perform
user interface evaluations using heuristic evaluation, walkthrough evaluation, interactive
evaluation, and formal usability testing; and to address nonfunctional requirements such
viii Preface
as user interface layout, content awareness, aesthetics, user experience, and consistency.
This chapter also addresses issues related to mobile computing, social media, games,
multidimensional information visualizations, immersive environments, and international
and cultural issues with regard to user interface design. Chapter 11 focuses on the physical architecture and infrastructure design, which includes deployment diagrams and
hardware/software specification. In today’s world, this also includes issues related to cloud
computing, ubiquitous computing, the Internet of things, and green IT. This chapter, like
the previous design chapters, covers the impact that nonfunctional requirements can have
on the physical architecture layer.
Part Three provides material that is related to the construction, installation, and operations
of the system. Chapter 12 focuses on system construction, where students learn how to build,
test, and document the system. Installation and operations are covered in Chapter 13, where
students learn about the conversion plan, change management plan, support plan, and project
assessment. Additionally, these chapters address the issues related to developing systems in a flat
world, where developers and users are distributed throughout the world.
SUPPLEMENTS www.wiley.com/college/dennis
Instructor Book Companion Website
¦ PowerPoint slides: Instructors can tailor the slides to their classroom needs.
Students can use them to guide their reading and studying activities.
¦ Test Bank: Includes a variety of questions ranging from multiple-choice, true/
false, and short answer questions. A computerized, Respondus version of the Test
Bank is also available.
¦ Instructor’s Manual: Provides resources to support the instructor both inside
and out of the classroom. The manual includes short experiential exercises that
instructors can use to help students experience and understand key topics in
each chapter. Short stories have been provided by people working in both corporate and consulting environments for instructors to insert into lectures to make
concepts more colorful and real. Additional minicases for every chapter allow
students to perform some of the key concepts that were learned in the chapter.
Solutions to end of chapter questions and exercises are provided.
Student Book Companion Website
¦ A collection of templates and worksheets consisting of electronic versions of
selected figures from the book.
¦ A completely new, expanded case study on an integrated health clinic delivery
system has been written to accompany the fifth edition. This case study is online
only. It can be accessed at www.wiley.com/go/dennis/casestudy.
¦ “Your Turn” and “Concepts in Action” boxes from the fourth edition have been
moved online and can be accessed from the student companion site.
Wiley E-Text: Powered by VitalSource
This Wiley e-text offers students continuing access to materials for their course. Your students
can access content on a mobile device, online from any Internet-connected computer, or by
a computer via download. With dynamic features built into this e-text, students can search
across content, highlight, and take notes that they can share with teachers and classmates.
Preface
ix
Visible Analyst
Wiley has partnered with Visible Analyst to give students a discounted price for Visible
Analyst software, an intuitive modeling tool for all aspects of traditional or object-oriented
systems analysis and design. All new copies of the text will have a Key Code (printed on
a page near the front of this text) that will provide a discount on Visible Analyst software.
To obtain the software, students should visit http://store.visible.com/Wiley.aspx and enter
their Key Code. Students who buy a new print text or digital e-book will receive one-third
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Project Management Software
You can download a 60-day trial of Microsoft Project Professional 2013 from the following
Website: www.microsoft.com/en-us/evalcenter/evaluate-project-professional-2013. Note
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Another option now available to education institutions adopting this Wiley title is a
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