urban geography- quick post discussion

answer the following, the attached ppt will help1. What are the positive and negative effects of globalization to countries? 2. What kind of future do you see for the world in terms of our political, environmental and economic climate as globalization continues accelerate?
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CONTEMPORARY
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
CULTURE, GLOBALIZATION, LANDSCAPE
MONA DOMOSH
RODERICK P. NEUMANN
PATRICIA L. PRICE
C. 2015 W.H. FREEMAN & CO.
ONE WORLD OR MANY?
THE CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE FUTURE
11.1 REGION
THE UNEVEN GEOGRAPHY
OF DEVELOPMENT
• Most cultural geographers expect that regional diversity
will persist.
• The core–periphery concept is just as relevant as ever,
especially where development is concerned.
• Global interdependence has not evened out the
differences between the haves and have-nots; in many
ways, it increases them.
• There is now a transnational class of the super-rich, the
0.25% of the world’s population that owns as much
wealth as the other 99.75%. Most of them live in a First
World core.
IS THE GLOBAL INCOME GAP
WIDENING?
• Not all observers agree that the income gap is widening.
• The incomes of the richest nations are increasing at a
greater rate than those of the poorest – it does look as if
the rich are becoming richer faster, while the poor
remain poor … but …
• The many poorer countries contain only 10% of the
world’s population, while those that are developing very
rapidly (mostly Asian countries) contain more than 40%.
• In the meantime, income gaps within nation-states are
growing rapidly.
THE “FAST” AND “SLOW” WORLDS
• The fast world is at the forefront of instantaneous global
communication.
• The fast world is connected to high-speed broadband
Internet; based in the world’s megacities; adaptable to
rapid shifts in global trends of investment, trade,
production, and consumption; and home to the
transnational superrich.
• The slow world consists of hollowed-out rural landscapes,
declining or abandoned manufacturing zones, and
slums and shantytowns.
• Computers and Internet broadband service, even if
available, are priced out of reach of most of the
inhabitants of the slow world.
FIGURE 11.2 Left behind in globalization’s wake. This abandoned industrial site
and the communities that housed its workers belong to the slow world.
(Courtesy of Roderick Neumann.)
ONE EUROPE OR MANY?
• Local identities are asserting themselves within states at
the same time that supranationalism is touted as the
path to “one Europe.”
• Power and wealth will likely not be evenly distributed
geographically in Europe, contributing to the
maintenance of many cultural regions.
• Many scholars believe that globalization actually
strengthens people’s bond between place and identity.
• Local political movements seek to reinvigorate ethnic
identities rooted in place.
DECLINING SUPPORT FOR THE EU?
• A 2013 poll of EU citizens found that the economic crisis
has become a political crisis for the future of the EU.
• Public support for EU integration plummeted since its
highs in the first decade of the 21st century.
• Attitudes toward the EU project are diverging among
member states, with Germans showing strong support
and a French majority expressing dissatisfaction.
• Support for the EU is dropping among 18- to 29-year-olds
in all countries.
FIGURE 11.4 Centrifugal forces in the European Union. Students in Athens,
Greece burn the EU flag in protest of unpopular EU economic policy. In the
context of continuing economic hardship, support for EU membership is
dropping fastest among Europe’s youth. (EPA/ORESTIS
PANAGIOTOU/LANDOV.)
GLOCALIZATION
Glocalization:
The process by which global forces of change
interact with local cultures, altering both in the
process.
• Transnational corporations often have to adapt
their product lines to local norms and preferences
or adjust their production practices to local labor
and environmental laws.
• Glocalization ensures the survival of culture regions
and places in the future.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE INTERNET
• The Internet allows the global interconnectivity of individuals
and institutions.
• Once place-bound human activities now occur on the
Internet almost instantaneously on a global scale.
• The Internet can cross borders, both political and cultural; it
breaks down barriers; it eliminates the effects of distance …
but …
• Like many technological innovations, the Internet is a tool with
many, often unanticipated, uses. It can be used to emphasize
and defend geographies of cultural difference.
• Rather than making national borders irrelevant, the Internet
can sometimes highlight differences between countries.
FIGURE 11.6 Connections to the Internet. What consequences might a low
frequency of Internet connections have on a country’s economic, political,
and cultural future?
VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES
• The Internet has been very effective in creating new
forms of social interaction, including the creation of
virtual communities.
• “Virtual places” lack a cultural landscape and a cultural
ecology.
• On a worldwide scale, human diversity is poorly
portrayed in cyberspace. “Old people, poor people, the
illiterate, and the continent of Africa” seem not to be
“there.”
• The breath and spirit of place cannot exist in
cyberspace.
11.2 MOBILITY
MOBILITY IN THE DIGITAL AGE
• The Internet clearly has profoundly altered the speed and
character of cultural interaction.
• The spread of more democratic forms of governance has
accompanied the more rapid movement of information over
the Internet.
• Social media and mobile devices have played roles in
organizing new social movements (e.g., Arab Spring and
Occupy Wall Street).
• The Internet has diffused into almost every land, but barriers to
access include inadequate infrastructure, poverty, and
tyrannical governments.
• Nonetheless, current trends suggest a near universally
connected world.
FIGURE 11.8 Diffusion of the Internet. This diffusion seems to have followed a
rather typical pattern, with the earliest connections in core world regions and
the latest in the periphery. (Source: Crum, 2000; see also Press, 1997.)
NEW (AUTO)MOBILITIES
• In 2010, China overtook the United States to
become the largest automobile market in the world
in terms of both sales and production.
• India has emerged as the region’s third largest
exporter of passenger cars behind only Japan and
South Korea.
• American auto manufacturers have scrambled to
gain a foothold in emerging markets such as China.
FIGURE 11.11 Traffic congestion in Shanghai. China is now the largest
automobile market in the world. Here, automobiles and bicycles compete for
space in the increasingly congested streets of Shanghai, China.
(Jeff Greenberg/Photolibrary/Getty Images.)
MIGRATION FUTURES
• As long as there are environmental disasters, globalscale economic inequalities, and civil wars, we know
diasporas will occur.
• Predicting where diaspora cultures will emerge and
when, however, is much more difficult.
• Rural-to-urban migration will likely continue through the
21st century.
• By 2030 the UN predicts that at least 60% of the world’s
population will live in cities, with further urbanization
expected through the century.
THE PLACE(S) OF THE GLOBAL TOURIST
• Tourism will be one of the key types of mobility of the
21st century.
• There are distinct differences in power that structure the
tourist experience – a glaring inequality between the
visiting and visited cultures.
• The vast majority of global tourists are from the First
World. Cultures visited are often located in marginalized
sites of the global economy.
• Tourism can be a double-edged sword (i.e., an
imperative to preserve and nurture folk and indigenous
cultures, and an imperative to merely create the illusion
of cultural difference).
FIGURE 11.16 Global tourism and local culture. Tourists line up to photograph
colorfully dressed “natives.” What do such encounters suggest about the
effects of global tourism on local cultures? (Michael Coyne/Lonely Planet
Images/Getty Images.)
11.3 GLOBALIZATION
UNDERSTANDING THE FUTURE EFFECTS OF
GLOBALIZATION THROUGH THE PAST
• U.S. overseas imperialism was conducted not through
military conquest and occupation, but through the
international commercial activities of private
corporations.
• Early-20th-century international business looked a lot
like what we call globalization.
WHAT WILL GLOBALIZATION BRING?
• Globalization would seem to erase cultural
difference, but it has been accompanied by a
reassertion of religious, national, and ethnic
identities (e.g., heightened ethnic divisions and
conflicts, the resurgence of nationalism, and
numerous highly visible identity movements—gay,
feminist, green, and religious fundamentalist). …
• The future effects of globalization will likely not be
predominantly homogenizing.
GLOBALIZATION AND
ITS DISCONTENTS
• For many people, the future under globalization does
not look bright.
• Ultra-nationalist reactions include calls for protection of
national industries against global competition and limits
to immigration and migrant rights.
• On the political left are critics who see globalization as
leading to increased economic inequalities across all
geographic scales and increased empowerment of
transnational corporations at the expense of local
access and control (e.g., the Occupy movement and
the Zapatista movement).
BLENDING SOUNDS ON
A GLOBAL SCALE
• If we think about music historically, synthesis and
hybridization have deep roots. It is actually fairly
difficult to find a truly “authentic” or “pure” locally
bound musical genre that has not been influenced
by extra-local musical forms.
• Modern technological innovations, from the
invention of the gramophone to the release of
online file-sharing software, have accelerated,
intensified, and added to the complex processes of
musical hybridization.
11.4 NATURE–CULTURE
A “NO ANALOG FUTURE”
• Global fossil fuel consumption is rising dramatically
in response to the demands of China’s and India’s
rapidly expanding economies.
• Atmospheric carbon dioxide level is higher today
than it has been for at least 2 million years.
• Physical geographers now think in terms of “no
analog future” scenarios for the Earth’s ecosystem
– there is no past experience in human history to
guide our understanding of a future ecosystem
transformed by the Industrial Revolution.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
• Most forecasters agree that recent trends indicate rising
levels of consumption worldwide.
• Cultures of mass consumption require enormous
amounts of natural resources and produce prodigious
quantities of pollutants.
• The question of sustainable development on a global
scale has been around since the 1970s.
• The “mainstream” version of sustainable development
was defined in a way that posed no serious challenge to
the status quo of continual global expansion of
consumption and economic growth.
ARE THERE SUSTAINABLE FUTURES?
• Some observers conclude that the term sustainable
development is an oxymoron.
• Critics of the mainstream model of sustainable development
highlight:
?It does not take into account the larger-scale historical and
structural causes of poverty, such as the lasting effects of
European colonialism.
?The focus on the link between poverty and ecological
degradation downplays the environmental impact from
high levels of consumption in affluent countries.
FIGURE 11.19 Mountaintop mining in West Virginia. Landscapes and
ecosystems are permanently altered to meet the industrial demand for
increasing amounts of fossil fuels. A popular technique in coal mining involves
the removal of entire mountaintops to access the deposit. (Melissa
Farlow/National Geographic Creative/Getty Images.)
ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES TO
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
• Many development experts recommend
formulating sustainable development “from below”
rather than through a top-down global program.
• Switching our main energy sources from fossil fuels
to renewable resources will be necessary for
sustainable futures.
THINK GLOBALLY, ACT LOCALLY
• The UN Conference on Environment and
Development, the Rio Conference, produced
international conventions or agreements that
sought to reduce global ecological problems such
as species extinction and global warming.
• The most prominent of these was the Convention
on Biological Diversity.
• If we plan carefully, actions taken at the local scale
in places around the world will collectively result in
an improved global environment.
11.5 CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
GLOBALIZED LANDSCAPES
• Urban landscapes can serve as an index to the
level and type of engagement with the
globalization process … but …
• Homogenizing processes are neither omnipresent
nor omnipotent.
• Visible differences among cities seem likely to persist
– people all over the world value their cultural
landscapes,
FIGURE 11.21 Modern office buildings in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The forces of
globalization have accelerated the construction of landscapes such as this
one near the docklands area of Puerto Madero Harbor basin. (wim
wiskerke/Alamy.)
STRIVING FOR THE UNIQUE
• One city after another has preserved or erected
some building or monument so unique as to be a
symbol or icon of that particular city (e.g., the Eiffel
Tower or Space Needle).
• Many or most of these icons predate the era of
globalization, but that is not the issue. Rather, their
retention and protection offer the relevant
message.
Neolocalism:
The desire to re-embrace the uniqueness and
authenticity of place, in response to globalization.
FIGURE 11.23 Copenhagen’s Nyhavn district. A key port from the 1600s to the
early 1900s, Nyhavn was abandoned by the shipping industry as ship size
increased after World War II. In the mid-1960s, the city slapped on fresh coats
of bright paint and hauled in antique sailing ships to create one of the most
recognizable historic ports in the world. Can you think of other historic
waterfronts that have been similarly restored to create iconic urban
landscapes? (Courtesy of Roderick Neumann.)
WALMART AND NEOLOCALISM
• Zoning laws, architectural guidelines, minimum lot-size
requirements, building codes, and conservation
easements can all be used to maintain the distinct
character of landscapes.
• Often small community groups and town governments
are pitted against powerful transnational corporations
whose investment choices can profoundly transform a
landscape (e.g., a new Walmart store).
• Some communities have welcomed Walmart and others
have tried hard to keep out the chain (e.g., the entire
state of Vermont).
PROTECTING EUROPE’S
RURAL LANDSCAPE
• The drive to eliminate territorial barriers to the free
trade of commodities threatens rural landscapes in
Europe.
• European farmers and their national and EU
representatives have argued that agriculture is not
solely about food production—that it performs
multiple functions, such as maintaining cultural
landscapes and providing environmental services.
• The preservation of cultural landscapes may be a
key tool used to slow or mitigate globalization’s
homogenizing effects.
FIGURE 11.26 Rural town in Andalusia, Spain. The ancient olive terraces,
gardens, woodlots, and pastures of this town are typical of much of
Mediterranean Europe. Globalization and other economic forces are
making the traditional, extensive agricultural systems that produced and
support such landscapes increasingly obsolete. (Courtesy of Roderick
Neumann.)
NO ANALOG LANDSCAPE FUTURES
• Perhaps the most straightforward impact of global
climate change will be a latitudinal movement of
agricultural landscapes northward in the Northern
Hemisphere.
• Climate models show local and regional rainfall patterns
shifting under global warming. Increased drought
occurrence may lead to the spread of irrigation.
• In some cases climate change is exacerbating land
abandonment and accelerating rural-to-urban
migration, leading to an emptying out of rural
landscapes.
SEA-LEVEL RISE
• The most critical impact of climate change for cities will
be sea-level rise.
• Sea level is rising faster than in past centuries and the
rate of rise appears to be accelerating.
• Sea-level rise has the direct effect of coastal flooding,
but the indirect effects, such as power outages and
damaged sewer and water systems, extend well beyond
flooded areas.
• A wide range of responses to sea-level rise will drastically
alter coastal urban landscape futures – most dramatic
will be population migration inland.
FIGURE 11.27 The Maeslant Barrier in Rotterdam, Netherlands. This huge
movable structure, the largest of its kind in the world, creates a barrier to high
seas when closed. Such landscape features will become more numerous and
prominent in the future as sea levels rise. (frans lemmens/Alamy.)

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