Week 6 Social Research Issue Essay

Assignment
Research a current major social/cultural issue or problem relevant to your career or intended
career. Discuss how your formal degree studies (including key theories, models, methods, and
related empirical research) have prepared you to identify, analyze, and resolve that issue the
issue or problem. Recommend and construct an innovative problem-solving strategy, using a
thesis and supporting reasons, that addresses the issue or problem.
For example, if your field of study were business, and you worked for a utility company that sold
hunting licenses on some of its land to create revenue, what should the company do when
approached by a community group that requests the practice stop? Or what about the corporate
use of off-shore accounts to avoid paying taxes? If your career path leads you to firefighting, for
example, would you protest the increase of residential development into wilderness areas due
to the costs of suppressing those fires?
This essay should be academic in tone, use at least five outside sources (please use peer
reviewed or trade publications, or interviews with experts in the field), and be 1500-2000 words
in length. Essays should follow APA formatting conventions. The Title and References pages
will not be included in the required word count. Attached are the instructions and grading rubric for the assignment. All criteria must be met to a tee. The literature review complete with references and headers is attached as well. GO from the literature review and expand on the paragraphs. It is not much else that needs to be done.
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Running Head: Literature Review
1
Literature Review
Joran Straub
Brandman University
Running Head: Literature Review
2
Literature Review
“All men are created equal” has been an immortal declaration used for centuries to shelter
the injustice in America, but are we really equal? While there have always been racial
inequalities in the world, Colin Kaepernick’s “Take A Knee” movement has made them
extremely relevant and a massive social issue today. He has shinned a light on the police
brutality against minorities, systematic racism, and hate crimes in America. Criminal Justice
correlate with the problem of racial inequalities and police brutalities because the criminal justice
system is supposed to serve and protect everyone in need regardless of the race. This study has
value in the academic community because not only does in enlighten students of the
discrimination of minorities today, but also explain how racism effects individuals, so it could be
prevented in an academic setting and students can respect each other’s cultural backgrounds.
Police brutality is the use of extreme or undesirable force by a police officer when
dealing with a civilian. Police brutality is an act of misconduct from a police officer and should
never be executed, but several police officers use this abuse of authority. This has commonly
Running Head: Literature Review
3
been an issue for the African American community. Black men are constantly harassed by the
police and routinely brutalized with impunity, even when they have done nothing wrong, and
there is an “epidemic of police shootings of unarmed black men (Patterson& Swan, 2016, pg.
267). According to Collin Kaepernick the American flag is supposed represent equality among
all races including African Americans and police killing unarmed black men shows theirs no
equality in America.
Systematic racism is a form of racism represented by social and political associations.
Systematic racism happens around us every day, but this is a form of racism that commonly goes
unnoticed. According to a study, white families hold 90% of the nation’s wealth, Latinos hold
2.3 %, and black families hold 2.6 % (Chaney, 2015, pg. 313). Society tries to blame this
systematic race issue on the great recession, but why is it that this recession only hit minorities?
It should have affected every race. Collin Kaepernick is currently experiencing systematic or by
being black balled by the NFL for speaking publicly about racism and taking a knee during the
national anthem.
Hate crimes are crimes stimulated by racial, sexual, and other biases. The number of hate
crimes increased for a second consecutive year in the United States (Posselet, 2017, pg. 475).
America glorifies hate crimes instead of getting to the underlining issue, that is why they are
becoming more common. Everything is made a headline or breaking news to give hateful
individuals ideas instead of ridiculing the behavior. Hate crimes used to be rare, now when one is
done it is considered a normal crime. Collin Kaepernick recognizes how society is oblivious to
the hate crimes being executed and hopes America comes together to alleviate them.
Running Head: Literature Review
4
Chaney, C. (2015). Institutional Racism: Perspectives on the Department of Justice’s
Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department. Western Journal of Black Studies,
39(4), 312-330.
In this article of non- fiction based on the authors research use statistics from the United
States Justice Department to highlight race discrimination, institutional racism, police shootings,
and government investigations. The author uses numerical data from police records such as
traffic stops, arrests and violent interactions as well as deadly encounters to show the contrast
between the police and minorities compared to their Caucasian counterparts.
This article would be an asset for my research paper because it covers a lot about black
shootings and how society views them. Many authors only cover experts point of view, but this
author also covered societies theories. I think this would be significant when covering the affects
of racial inequalities.
Kane, D., & Tiell, B. (2017). Application of Normative Ethics to Explain
Colin Kaepernick’s Silent Protest in the NFL. Sport Journal, 1.
This article talks about Colin Kaepernick, a player in the National Football League
(NFL), created a national debate when refusing to stand during the national anthem throughout
the 2016 season. Kaepernick’s intentions were to bring attention to issues of social injustice,
however, many believed that his actions were disrespectful to the United States of America. This
article builds a theoretical framework using three sub-theories and nine principles of normative
ethics to explore perceptions of Kaepernick’s silent protest as being right or wrong.
Running Head: Literature Review
5
This source will be an asset to my research paper because it explains all Kaepernick’s
feelings and theories. It explains the reasoning behind his actions and his background. The author
also touches on the misunderstanding people have of him. It would be great when touching on
how Kaepernick feels about certain aspects in my paper.
Patterson, G. T., & Swan, P. G. (2016). Police shootings of unarmed African American males: A
systematic review. Journal of Human Behavior in The Social Environment, 26(3/4), 267278. doi:10.1080/10911359.2015.1125204
In this article of non- fiction based on the authors research describes the result of
systematic racism in the African American community. The author examines the shootings of
unarmed African American men. The data is pulled from several types of medical record and
dental records. Criminal record is also examined for further information. This source will be an
asset to my research study because it pertains scholarly information about systematic racism. The
author has also pertained information from several different studies, which will aide with
detailed explanations.
Posselt, G. (2017). Can hatred speak? On the linguistic dimensions of hate crime. Linguistik
Online, (3), 5.
This article addresses hate crimes and how to identify them. It also describes the motives
for hate crimes and why individuals take it so far. The author explains philosopher’s theories of
hate crimes and how they correlate with the individual’s feelings. This article would be a great
asset for my research paper because it has, so many explanations for hate crimes. The author also
Running Head: Literature Review
6
is a philosopher, so she touches several aspects from her point of view with colleagues. This
would be great when added experts feedback.
Stahl, T. t. (2017). Collective Responsibility for Oppression. Social Theory & Practice, 43(3),
473-501.
This article talks about Social oppression and the how it came about and the effects of it.
It also talks about what we can do as a people to help correct it and whose responsibility it is to
correct it. The author Titus Stahl is a graduate of the University of Groningen and majored in the
Social Sciences. He is currently a Professor of Florida State University and works in
the Philosophy Department. I think this article is a great asset to my research paper because it
covers what society could do to correct inequalities. I think this would be great when covering
the reals reasoning why Kaepernick started this movements.
Running Head: Literature Review
7
References
Chaney, C. (2015). Institutional Racism: Perspectives on the Department of Justice’s
Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department. Western Journal of Black Studies,
39(4), 312-330.
Kane, D., & Tiell, B. (2017). Application of Normative Ethics to Explain
Colin Kaepernick’s Silent Protest in the NFL. Sport Journal, 1.
Patterson, G. T., & Swan, P. G. (2016). Police shootings of unarmed African American males: A
systematic review. Journal of Human Behavior in The Social Environment, 26(3/4), 267278. doi:10.1080/10911359.2015.1125204
Posselt, G. (2017). Can hatred speak? On the linguistic dimensions of hate crime. Linguistik
Online, (3), 5.
Stahl, T. t. (2017). Collective Responsibility for Oppression. Social Theory & Practice, 43(3),
473-501.
Social Issue Research Essay
Assignment
Research a current major social/cultural issue or problem relevant to your career or intended
career. Discuss how your formal degree studies (including key theories, models, methods, and
related empirical research) have prepared you to identify, analyze, and resolve that issue the
issue or problem. Recommend and construct an innovative problem-solving strategy, using a
thesis and supporting reasons, that addresses the issue or problem.
For example, if your field of study were business, and you worked for a utility company that sold
hunting licenses on some of its land to create revenue, what should the company do when
approached by a community group that requests the practice stop? Or what about the corporate
use of off-shore accounts to avoid paying taxes? If your career path leads you to firefighting, for
example, would you protest the increase of residential development into wilderness areas due
to the costs of suppressing those fires?
This essay should be academic in tone, use at least five outside sources (please use peer
reviewed or trade publications, or interviews with experts in the field), and be 1500-2000 words
in length. Essays should follow APA formatting conventions. The Title and References pages
will not be included in the required word count.
What is a social/cultural issue research essay?
This research essay addresses a major problem that is related to your field of study or
profession at an organizational, cultural, or international level. It will require undertaking some
form of active research, whether through the library, or an activity such as interviewing—likely
both. The goal of this essay is present an effective solution to the problem or issue based
on the knowledge/skills gained from your degree studies, existing data, and published research
as well as information from knowledgeable persons (such as experts and practitioners).
What is the basic content and organization of a social issue research essay?
Statement of the Problem (approx.1 page)
?
First, grab the attention and interest of your readers, and then introduce the problem to be
studied. Describe precisely what you intend to show or argue and why (i.e., the “so what?”
question). Make sure the research question addresses a significant social issue or problem
in your field.
?
A good research question advances knowledge about a timely and significant issue,
facilitates our ability to predict events, and may test or resolve contradictory theories.
?
The problem you raise should be relevant to contemporary situations or trends and have
broad applicability. A good social problem question is relatively value-free and objective. All
assertions of fact must be documented. Social issue research is not an editorial piece in
which you merely assert your opinions and beliefs.
?
Clearly state your thesis that addresses the social issue or problem and support it with three
credible and specific reasons generated from scholarly research.
Literature Review and Argument Development (approx. 3-4 pages)
?
Analyze and integrate the reasons and evidence gathered from your academic degree
studies (e.g., theories and models) and current research that impacted and tested your
argument. Do not simply use bulleted lists to describe the data.
?
Document and cite statements of fact from sources. Avoid over-generalizations that cannot
be supported with evidence. Do not cite sources that have no bearing on your argument. Be
sure to operationally define key concepts.
?
Examine the reasoning patterns that link the evidence to your thesis. Evaluate the strengths
and limitations of the data you have gathered. Include any expert testimony and personal
observations you may have to illuminate or support your stated position.
?
Address anticipated criticisms about the validity of your materials and research (e.g.,
generalizability of findings, sample representativeness). Acknowledge counter-claims and
conditions that impact your strategy or solutions. Cohesively, succinctly restate your
argument.
Findings (1 page)
?
Present the results that specifically addressed your argument. Discuss the relationship
between your solution to the problem and variables contributing to your proposed strategy.
Refer to findings from your degree major courses, empirical research studies, or any direct
observation and testing you may have done in the field (even if limited).
Discussion (approx.1 page)
?
Given what you have found, what was the status and value of your solution? Can it be
improved upon? What are the limitations of your research? What should other researchers
look for given what you have found? Are there related findings or issues not directly bearing
on your argument that should be examined or tested?
Conclusion (approx.1/2 page)
?
Reiterate what you intended to demonstrate or discover and what, in fact, you found.
References (approx.1 to 2 pages)
?
List all references from your annotated bibliography in alphabetical order by author’s last
name or organization (if no author), using the Publication Manual of the APA (6th edition).

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