What causes stereotypes and/or prejudice?

I have a research paper and the rough draft is due tomorrow, December 7th at 12:00 PM. The rough draft does not have to be great, but the final draft is due next week on Friday, December 15th at 12:00AM. I put the prompt above and I’ll add more files below such as the rubric and more prompt information. I already picked the topic of feminism and how body shaming and slut shaming women is a problem. If you find another one of the topics is easier to write about then that is okay. Everything has to be MLA format please and I need a works cited page. Please make sure all the work cited are credible websites.


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Essay #4:
Research and Argumentation on a Contemporary Issue: Stereotypes
Length: 5-6 pages
Points: 200
Prospectus with the sources due online by the start of class
Due Date
Tues., 11/28
Outline with all sources integrated plus thesis statement due online 11:59 p.m.
(midnight) of
Sun., 12/3
Complete rough draft due in class for peer review workshop
Thurs., 12/7
Final draft of essay
11:59 p.m.
(midnight) on
Fri., 12/15
In this unit, we are studying the act of stereotyping and the single stories that exist about various
groups of people, based on race, physical ability, gender, etc. In the texts we read and the videos
we watched, a diverse range of thinkers–from psychologists to actresses–have highlighted some
of reasons people stereotype. They have discussed the harmful consequences of stereotyping,
such as the escalation of hate and inequality. On a hopeful note, many of these same authors
have offered concrete solutions.
The research paper prompt you must respond to is below:
What causes stereotypes and/or prejudice? Furthermore, what
can individuals and/or communities do to stop the escalation
of hate and build a more culturally competent community?
You may choose to narrow your focus to a specific “ism” (e.g., sexism, heterosexism,
racism, ageism, colorism, ableism, lookism, feminism, religious intolerance, etc.) and/or
location (e.g., school, neighborhood, city, workplace, military, U.S., another country, etc.).
Some “Isms” and their definitions:
Sexism has been an almost universal condition of civilization, probably due to the fact that men
tend to be larger and to have more upper body strength than women. This brings with it a greater
average capacity for violence, violence is the language of despotism, and we are only slowly
moving beyond despotism. Sexism tends to force women into subservient, restrictive roles that
many women do not want, and to force men into dominant, competitive roles that many men do
not want.
Heterosexism: A subcategory of sexism, heterosexism describes the pattern in which people
with clearly defined genders are assumed to want to have sexual relationships exclusively with
members of the opposite gender. Since not everybody does, the outliers can be punished with
ridicule, restriction of partnership rights, discrimination, arrest, and even possibly death.
Cisgenderism is a social pattern in which people who do not identify with their assigned gender
roles or do not have clearly-assigned gender roles, are forced to either choose gender roles that
do not suit them or suffer the social consequences.
Classism is a social pattern in which wealthy or influential people congregate with each other,
and oppress those who are less wealthy or less influential.
Racism is a social pattern in which people who are identified as members of one specific “racial”
group are treated differently from people who are members of another.
Colorism is a social pattern in which people are treated differently based on the amount of
visible melanin in the skin. It is not the same thing as racism, but the two tend to go together.
Ableism is a social pattern in which people who are disabled are treated differently, to an
unnecessary degree, than those who are not.
Lookism is a social pattern in which people whose faces and/or bodies fit social ideals are
treated differently from people whose faces and/or bodies do not.
Sizeism is a social pattern in which people whose bodies fit social ideals are treated differently
from people whose bodies do not.
Ageism is a social pattern in which people of a certain chronological age are treated differently,
to an unnecessary degree, than those who are not.
Nativism is a social pattern in which people who are born in a given country are treated
differently from those who immigrate to it, to the benefit of natives.
Colonialism is a social pattern in which people who are born in a given country are treated
differently from those who immigrate to it, usually to the benefit of a specific identifiable group
of powerful immigrants.
Key texts from this unit:
“The Danger of a Single Story” TED Talk by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
“How to Write About Africa” by Binyavanga Wainaina (satire)
“Don’t Let Stereotypes Warp Your Judgment” by Robert Heilbroner
“Disability and the Media: Prescriptions for Change” by Charles Riley II
“Pinksourcing with Kristen Bell” YouTube video (satire, goes with sexism/feminism)
“An Introduction: At the Root of Identity,” book chapter from Whistling Vivaldi: and
Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us
Key terms from this unit:
• Stereotype, stereotype threat, pyramid of hate, unconscious bias, micro-aggression, hate
crime, genocide, prejudice, discrimination, domination, subordination, oppression
In your research paper, make sure to do the following:
? Thoroughly explain the key concepts in this unit by referencing the texts we have read
and providing an overview.
? Create an original and argumentative thesis that fulfills the “5 Qualities of a Strong
Thesis,” and craft thoughtful claims (which will typically appear in the topic sentence of
each paragraph.)
? Employ a problem/solution structure. Explain the root causes of stereotyping and the
consequences of stereotyping. Then, discuss some of the ways people can combat
stereotypes and fight for social justice. You must conduct research and incorporate 5-6
credible sources (at least 1 must be scholarly!). I recommend also using a text
assigned in class). I highly recommend turning to the Course Reader and refer to the
later chapters on creating your own claims and evidence for learning how to formulate an
effective argument. This is assigned reading anyway.
? In your conclusion, and elsewhere in your paper as appropriate, connect these concepts to
your own experiences and identity. Consider discussing stereotypes you have held, faced
and/or observed. Consider real world application, and make speculations on what might
be done, moving forward, to create a more culturally competent environment. Should we
make the effort to prevent/reduce issues related to this “ism”? Can certain coping
methods make a difference?
Essay #4: Grading Rubric Sheet
In the introduction, engage us with the “larger conversation”/ “heart of the matter.” Present
your purpose (what you are setting out to do) and why. Don’t forget to include relevant
context for your particular “ism,” if you are choosing one to focus on.
Establish a clear, substantially crafted thesis that covers the major points you will discuss
and analyze in your essay. It should reflect the structure of your paper and the “5 Qualities
of a Strong Thesis.” Your assertive voice should emerge in your thesis. You are welcome
to acknowledge a counterargument within your argument, but this is not required.
Craft clear, substantially crafted topic sentences (your claims) for each body paragraph.
Your topic sentences should vary; for example, in each body paragraph, you might address
the history of an “ism”, factors that contribute to stereotypes of this “ism”, testimonies,
counterarguments, progress that has been made, etc.
Effectively use evidence—direct quotations and paraphrasing–to support your main
argument. Adequately introduce and correctly cite a range of evidence types (testimonies,
factual data, historical anecdotes, expert opinions, etc.)
Analysis: synthesize ideas, draw conclusions, and present original insights. Respond to the
prompt question, demonstrating that you have thoroughly researched this topic and thought
critically about cultural competency, as well as solutions to prevent stereotyping and the
escalation of hate represented in the “Pyramid of Hate.”
Use an effective structure that smoothly and logically guides the reader from one idea to
the next. Include a range of transitional words and expressions where appropriate.
Have thoroughly edited your paper. Adhere to MLA format, length requirement, grammar,
and sentence structure. Include a proper Works Cited page.
Thoughtfully and eloquently conclude your discussion. Comment on the significance of
your essay and the topic at hand. Consider “real world application” and/or personal
connections in your general closure. How do stereotypes/this particular “ism” affect you?
Should we make the effort to prevent/reduce issues related to this “ism”? Can certain
coping methods make a difference? etc.
Include 5-6 credible outside texts and give the reader a brief summary of these sources. The
writer has included at least one scholarly article.
A strong, assertive voice and style will be considered here. Use first person (I/We) and
third person (he/she/they) when appropriate. Maintain a formal and academic tone. Avoid
wordiness and use present tense when discussing texts.
Total points:
Here is a sample outline below. Please refer to it as a template only; organize it in your own
way, creating your own original subtopics in focus. Include briefly phrased detail, citing
evidence from various sources that you plan to use later.
I. Introduction
A. engaging opener about issue
B. the contemporary situation
C. Thesis (your original argumentative position on the issue, with a map of what points you
will cover)
II. Historical context about the issue
III. Current news and testimonials/factual data
IV. Opposing views on the topic
V. Implemented solutions to resolve the issue
VI. Effects of the community/individual outreach
VII. Conclusion
A. Significance of the matter and prediction of effects on the future B. Sources’ impact on my
personal views
C. Should the “stereotypes/discrimination” prevention effort continue? (is it worth it? what
are barriers? what tactics should change?
Student (Anonymous) Professor Sow English 120-7217 May 19, 2017
I. Introduction
The Effects of Discrimination on Latinos
A. Define racial discrimination, and depression
B. Explain how racial discrimination, micro aggression and depression correlate
C. Rough Thesis: Latinos that have experienced racial discrimination have shown to have
psychological distress and depression.
II. What is micro aggression?
A. “The concept of micro aggressions originated in psychiatric and psychological practice and
represents a way to understand micro aggressions at the individual level. The leading
proponents of individualized interaction-based micro aggressions are Chester Pierce and
Derald Sue. As practicing clinicians, both found that micro aggressions impact the lives of
their clients, and both also touch on the role of context—albeit with some limitations which
we will discuss” (Embrick).
B. “While micro aggressions are often subtle, their cumulative effect is of ‘unimaginable
magnitude.’ Pierce conceptualized micro aggressions to occur in the interaction between
blacks and whites and proposed that superiority stemming from racism could manifest as
micro-offenses which ‘minimize the social importance of black achievement so that blacks
see themselves as useless, unlovable and unable’”(Embrick).
C. “Minorities experience racial prejudice and discrimination in ways that have tangible
mental, physiological, and health implications, and the consequences of these interactions
may be exacerbated because of the denial by the perpetrator of a racial act” (Embrick).
III. Experiences and Responses of Mexican-American Parents and Teens
A. “Adolescents identified negative stereotypes in media and derogatory anti-immigrant
comments from peers. They described a range of emotional responses, including sad, mad,
and hopeless; yet, they expressed few specific strategies to deal with discrimination. Some
male youth expressed concern that standing up to discrimination may lead to fighting”
B. “Parents described specific teen experiences that were related to racial slurs, immigrant
slurs, and unfair treatment in school settings by teachers and other students. Parents also
discussed strategies of reporting incidents to teachers, teaching children not to use
derogatory terms against others, telling them to not engage in fighting, and trying to prevent
criminalization of male youth by talking to them about clothing choices” (Romero).
IV. Discrimination and Mental health
A. “Everyday discrimination has been conceptualized as unfair treatment that is subtle and
occurs within daily routine practices that are seen as “normal” by the dominant group and
that reflect systematic, institutional, and interpersonal patterns of bias (Essed, 1991; Krieger,
2000). Examples of this form of discrimination include being ignored, treated rudely or with
less courtesy, and being thought of as less smart compared to others” (Molina).
B. “ [..]when chronic and cumulative, experiences of discrimination can elicit acute
physiological reactivity and may trigger a host of emotional and cognitive responses, which,
when heightened and prolonged, can increase risk of poor mental health, including
psychological distress, depressive symptomatology, and psychiatric disorders (Harrell, 2000)”
C. “In a recent meta-analysis of depression among Latinos in the United States, Mendelson,
Rehkopf, & Kubzansky (2008) documented that, compared to non-Latino whites, Latinos
reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms across 23 published studies […]
Latinos were more likely to report sadness all or most of the time (4.6%) and some of the
time (10.6%) compared to non-Latino Whites (2.8% and 7.8%, respectively)” (Molina).
V. How to stop discrimination
A. “Those tasked with “separating wrongful discrimination violate of the principle of racial
equality from lawful differential treatment employed in pursuit of that principle”297 must
adopt and employ a nuanced analytical approach, one cognizant of the realities and effects of
racism-based discrimination and not based on fictional “race” viewed as skin color or
phenotype” (Turner).
B. “The failure to recognize that “America has never discriminated on the basis of race
(which does not exist) but on the basis of racism (which most certainly does)”299 renders
invisible racism-based discrimination and results in a weakened and unequal Equal
Protection Clause. Racism-based discrimination matters.” (Turner).
VI. Conclusion
A. Correlate racial discrimination and micro aggressions with mental health.
B. How are Latinos affected by being discriminated
C. What we can do to stop racial discrimination.

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