write about 3 effects for 2 countries

I have the attached file below, i need you write about how 3 effects (safety, recruitment, training & development) can affect on human resources in each country ( China, Vietnam) through 5 dimensions need references if it has


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Five Gross Cultural Dilemmas of China
When people study international business and cross-culture encounter, they will face a lot
of culture differences. Like Hofstede mentions, culture is not a synergy, but is more likely a
conflict among the world. Culture differences are usually a disaster. Nowadays, more and more
scholars support cultural difference, since they insist that cultural elements are highly related to
ideology and values.
Hofstede developed cultural dimension theory, which is a framework for cross-cultural
communication. It describes the effects of a society’s culture on the values of its members, and
how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis. Basically, it
contains five parts: power/distance(PD), individualism(IDV), masculinity(MAS),
uncertainty/avoidance index(UAI), and long term orientation(LTO). These dimensions of
national culture are based on extensive research done by professor Hofstede and his research
team. They are used worldwide in both academic and professional settings and apply to various
In recent years, China, as the biggest developing countries in the world, properly adjusts
its economic policies based on its basic national conditions. Thus, both the economic power and
comprehensive national power of it developed a lot these years, which makes China become the
focus of all countries. However, the development of Chinese economy still faces a series of
challenges that may cause serious results. One of the biggest is from the culture dilemma.
To start with Power/Distance(PD), it refers to the extent to which the less powerful
members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is
distributed unequally. A high PD score indicates that society accepts an unequal distribution of
power and that people understand “their place” in the system, while low PD score means that
power is shared and well dispersed. It also means that society members view themselves as
According to the research, China sits in the high rankings of PD. That is to say, the
society believes that inequalities among people are acceptable. Besides, the subordinatesupervisor relationship becomes polarized. In this case, if the subordinates find there is
something wrong with their supervisors’ instructions or actions, like abusing the power, they will
not defend directly. Instead, they will just follow it. Undoubtedly, it is not a good phenomenon.
Most of time, individuals are influenced by formal authority and sanctions. They are in general
optimistic about people’s capacity for leadership and initiative. Objectively speaking, it has both
advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, it makes easy for supervisors to manage their
subordinates and assign tasks to them. On the other hand, since rank is extremely important in
business relationship, people may ignore their supervisors’ mistakes and have no enthusiasm in
expressing their own ideas.
The second part is individualism(IDV). It refers to the strength of the ties people have to
others within the community. A high IDV score indicates loss connections. In countries with a
high IDV score, there is a lack of interpersonal connection, and little sharing of responsibility
beyond family and perhaps a few close friends. A society with a low IDV score would have
strong group cohesion, and there would be a large amount of loyalty and respect for members of
the group. The group itself is also larger and people take more responsibility for each other’s
According to the research, China gets the score of 20, which means that it is highly
collectivist culture where people act in the interest of the group and not necessarily of
themselves. Of course it has some advantages in some way. For example, people are more
willing to cooperate with each other for their mutual benefits. And it will be easier for the
supervisors to manage the whole organization since all the followers have the same value—
fighting for the benefits of the organization. However, it causes some adverse effect as well.
Considerations of in-group sometimes may affect the progress of hiring and promoting.
Although the relationships with colleagues are cooperative for in-groups, most of them are very
low on their employment commitment to the organization. What’s more, in China, personal
relationships are more important than the tasks, which prevent the development of the whole
Then it comes to the third part—masculinity(MAS). This refers to how much a society
sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores are found in
countries where men are expected to be “tough,” to be the provider, and to be assertive. If
women work outside the home, they tend to have separate professions from men. Low scores do
to reserve the gender roles. In a low MAS society, the roles are simply blurred. Women and men
are allowed to be assertive, and women can work hard for professional success.
In ancient times, China had been in a state of feudalism for a long time, where women
were not allowed to work outside neither to take part in public affairs. Even women of the
nobility were generally depicted with their male guardians (husbands or fathers) controlling their
actions. Thus, at that time, male played the vital part in building the society, while the role
female played was subtle. With the reform and opening up and the progress of thought, China
has entered a new era, where both women and men are important in the construction of society.
According to the research, nowadays, China has reached a score of 66, which means that
China has come to the stage where is success oriented and driven. The majority of people would
like to sacrifice their families or leisure priorities for success. The representative example is the
Chinese College Entrance Examination. More and more students (girls and boys) care much
about their scores and rank as this is the main criteria to achieve success or not. It exactly
motivates students to work hard and pursue their dream. In most schools, girls who have good
grades are not less than boys. However, it limits students’ abilities on the other hand. Those
students who merely focus on the grades are more likely to ignore the cultivation of other
abilities. That could be the stumbling block on the way of China’s development. That is to say,
even though women’s statue has improved a lot than the past, the Chinese government still need
to make efforts to promote their working ability.
The fourth dimension is uncertainty/avoidance Index(UAI). This related to the degree of
anxiety that society members feel when in uncertain or unknown situations. High UAI-scoring
nations try to avoid ambiguous situations whenever possible. They are governed by rules and
order and they seek a collective “truth.” Low UAI scores indicate that the society enjoys novel
events and values differences. There are very few rules, and people are encouraged to discover
their own truth.
It seems like China has various rules and regulations in place to avoid ambiguous or
uncertain situations since ancient times. However, they are willing to bend and change the rules
as situations require it. Just as the history shows, China has experienced innumerable uprisings
and reforms in history. For instance, some emperors abused their powers and destroyed people’s
properties. Under this challenges, many heroes stand out and lead their followers to fight against
those people who damaged their benefits. Although not every fight turned to be successful, it
directly reflects the truth that Chinese have the spirits of unyielding. And because of those
spirits, China learns to resist in every adversity and make things right.
These spirits have been kept till today. According to the research, China ranks 40 on
uncertainty avoidance, meaning they accept ambiguous situations and are not deterred by them.
And many laws and rules may be flexible to suit the actual situation as well. So that’s why many
Chinese can be successful in starting a new business. They know how to adjust themselves into
new environment and dilemmas. This is undoubtedly one of their advantages. So many recruiters
look for innovative talents from the Chinese market these years.
Last but not least, the fifth dimension is long-term orientation(LTO). It describes how
every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of
the present and future. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example,
prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with
suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic
approach: they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the
China scores 87 in this dimension, which means that it is a very pragmatic culture. In
societies with a pragmatic orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on situation,
context and time. They show an ability to adapt traditions easily to changed conditions, a strong
propensity to save and invest, thriftiness, and perseverance in achieving results. Chinese
typically have a long-term orientation which means that they would think over a long term rather
than a short-term basis. In a word, the Chinese culture and business are influenced with a longer
term perspective. In this period, they will try to overcome the obstacles and challenges instead of
being in a hurry to get things done.
In order to easily understand the cultural features of Vietnam, it is necessary to have an
overview of each of the five cultural dimensions features in Vietnam.
Figure 1: Vietnam’s dimensions of natural culture score.
As we can see, Vietnam has a high score in Power Distance (70), which means that
people in there easy to accept and expect the unequal power distribution. Hierarchy in an
organization is reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates expect to
be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat. Vietnamese people accept the
position they have been placed easily and no justification. Most people do not have their own
opinions on economic, educational, social and political issues. With them, the things directly
related to the country has government anxiety.
Next, The Individualism in my country just reaches 20 points in this dimension, which
means that Vietnam has a tightly-knit framework society in which individuals can look after
other than them without expectation. In our generation and younger generations, the power of the
crowds in Vietnam is very huge. As a result, almost people are similar each other from the way
of thinking to the way of action. Almost everyone is afraid to be different. They are afraid that if
acting differently from the masses they will be gossiping, being interrogated by others and the
rebellion of the family. However, in the older generation, the Individualism can look like one of
Vietnamese good traditions about the neighboring relationship.
After that, the score of Masculinity in my country is 40 points, so it is objectively seen
that the issue of gender equality in the fields in Vietnam is quite high, especially in recent years.
However, in the mindset of the majority of people in there, the importance of male value is still
high. And the issues of protecting the right of women are still fragile. For example, problems
with rape or sexual harassment on women are still quite upset, and many people even keep
thinking those problems cause from the woman.
Then, Vietnam’s Uncertainty Avoidance is 30 which means that Vietnamese society
maintains a more relaxed attitude, takes practice more than principles. Vietnamese people
believe there should be no more rules than they are and if they are ambiguous or do not work
they should be abandoned or changed. In there, people probably do not follow the rules,
especially road rules and regulations. If you have the opportunity to visit Vietnam, you will have
the opportunity to admire the traffic jam of Vietnam. Likewise, the concept of “forest law” is
quite prominent there, and the good moral values of them are gradually disappearing and
replaced by “forest laws”, or spleen problems. Law and corruption are increasingly serious.
Finally, in Long Term Orientation, Vietnam scores 57, which means that there is kind of
pragmatic culture, Vietnamese people decide the truth is depended very much on situation and
condition. There was heavily influenced by Confucianism from over a thousand years of Han
domination, as well as the formation of the country, which was always influenced by the great
Chinese neighbors. So, the division of power is shaped from high to low by social status. So,
women and young people are the least vocals in society here. In addition, Confucianism is highly
recommended for study, so the qualifications and the quality of education for children are very
important here. And obviously, the highly educated people in Vietnam often have a pretty
collective voice.

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