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1) The period from the end of the American Civil War in 1865 to the turn of the 20th century began with high hopes for the creation of a more free and equal nation.The defeat of the rebellion and final destruction of slavery opened the door to this possibility.Looking at the historical events of Reconstruction (1865-1877), the Gilded Age (1870-1890), and the Populist Era (1890-1900), and citing specific examples from the in-class lectures, write a brief (2 pages, typed, double-spaced, preferably 12-pt font, roughly 500 words) essay explaining the extent to which the United States did, or did not live up to the ideal of creating a more free and equal society between 1865 and 1900. 2- do not use any out source except the notes that i upload them in the files.
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AMH ? 17 may
Film: reconstruction: The second civil war 1865-1877
part one.
-Presidential Reconstruction:
? Andrew Johnson, the 17th President of the United States, was pro-slavery
throughout his career in the Senate and as the Military Governor of
Tennessee.
? No one knew what the new president will do, what he wants to achieve.
? Andrew Johnson wanted to restore the union, so he returned confiscated
property back to white southerners
? The leader of the blacks despised the new president because he was in
agreement with the south regarding keeping black people as slaves.
-Tunis G. Campbell:
? Who is he?
He was the highest-ranking and most influential African American politician in
nineteenth-century Georgia
? What?s he doing?
In 1832 he founded an anti-colonization society and pledged “never to leave this
country until every slave was free on American soil.” He preached against slavery
? Why does he matter?
in 1867, with a goal to help freedmen vote, Campbell was appointed to the Board
of Registration in Georgia. He was elected to congress as a senator in Georgia in
1868, only to be expelled from office because white congressmen agreed that
blacks did not have the right to hold office.
-Freedmen?s Bureau:
? The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, commonly
referred to as the Freedmen?s Bureau, was created by Congress on March
3, 1865. Fashioned to provide temporary, one-year assistance to former
slaves and destitute whites in the war-ravaged South.
? Governmental agency, to aid the process of bringing freedom for the slaves
to the south
? When former slaveholders recovered their land upon President Johnson?s
amnesty proclamation of May 29, 1865, many freedmen were expelled
from land they had paid for. Changing its strategy, the Freedmen?s Bureau
then encouraged the freedmen to seek employment with former
slaveholders. Many became tenant farmers. Others ended up renting from
their former masters who took advantage of them, often denying them of
their earnings
? During the existence the Freedmen?s Bureau, it established over 1,000
schools and several black colleges.
? Throughout its entire existence, the Freedmen?s Bureau held less than twotenths of one percent of all southern lands, most of which President
Johnson?s amnesty proclamation restored to former slaveholders.
? What is going to replace it?
Early in 1866, Congress voted to renew the charter that had created the
Freedmen?s Bureau, in retaliation for the fact that Johnson had stripped the
bureau of its power. Congress also revised the charter to include special legal
courts that would override southern courts. Johnson, however, vetoed the
renewed Freedmen?s Bureau, once again using the states? rights argument that
the federal government should not deprive the states of their judicial powers.
Johnson also claimed that it was not the federal government?s responsibility to
provide special protection for blacks.
-Cotton and Freed people:
? Slaves produced things for their white masters, they mostly worked in
cotton field. Freed people resisted going back to work in cotton factories
after the war. White people in the south and north agreed that freed
people will work in cotton factories.
? Why don?t black people want to work in cotton factories?
Slaves had no constitutional rights; they could not testify in court against a white
person; they could not leave the plantation without permission. Slaves often
found themselves rented out, used as prizes in lotteries, or as wagers in card
games and horse races. Their biggest fear was being separated from family and
friends.
? Why did white people in the north and south want freed people work in
cotton fields?
-It reminded them of being slaves and they do not want that.
-The south wanted slavery mainly because they wanted to be able to have
workers but not have to pay them. This way the South could make more money
to either buy more slaves, more land, and be able to pay their taxes. This is
mainly why the Civil War started. The North didn’t like how the South didn’t have
to pay workers and the North did. The South also depended on slavery to keep
the growth of their farms, and plantations good. With out slavery the South
would have been much worse.
-Black codes:
? What are they?
Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil
War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans’
freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages
or debt.
? Why are they a problem?
many states required blacks to sign yearly labor contracts; if they refused, they
risked being arrested as vagrants and fined or forced into unpaid labor.
– 14th Amendment:
to Take reconstruction policies away from presidents, congress takes over
responsibility policies in the south.
? What is it?
The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws,
and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the
American Civil War.
? Who does it protect?
o All persons born or naturalized in the United States.
o No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law.
o states guarantee the same rights, privileges, and protections to all
citizens.
-Radical reconstruction:
? What is it?
Republicans in Congress took control of Reconstruction, this era was called
?Radical reconstruction?.
? What do they do?
The Radical Republicans believed blacks were entitled to the
same political rights and opportunities as whites. They also
believed that the Confederate leaders should be punished for
their roles in the Civil War.
? What do congress do to take control over the white house?
When the senates had more than 70% control they could just override and
take over the white house.
AMH ? 17 may
Film: reconstruction: The second civil war 1865-1877
part one.
-Presidential Reconstruction:
? Andrew Johnson, the 17th President of the United States, was pro-slavery
throughout his career in the Senate and as the Military Governor of
Tennessee.
? No one knew what the new president will do, what he wants to achieve.
? Andrew Johnson wanted to restore the union, so he returned confiscated
property back to white southerners
? The leader of the blacks despised the new president because he was in
agreement with the south regarding keeping black people as slaves.
-Tunis G. Campbell:
? Who is he?
He was the highest-ranking and most influential African American politician in
nineteenth-century Georgia
? What?s he doing?
In 1832 he founded an anti-colonization society and pledged “never to leave this
country until every slave was free on American soil.” He preached against slavery
? Why does he matter?
in 1867, with a goal to help freedmen vote, Campbell was appointed to the Board
of Registration in Georgia. He was elected to congress as a senator in Georgia in
1868, only to be expelled from office because white congressmen agreed that
blacks did not have the right to hold office.
-Freedmen?s Bureau:
? The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, commonly
referred to as the Freedmen?s Bureau, was created by Congress on March
3, 1865. Fashioned to provide temporary, one-year assistance to former
slaves and destitute whites in the war-ravaged South.
? Governmental agency, to aid the process of bringing freedom for the slaves
to the south
? When former slaveholders recovered their land upon President Johnson?s
amnesty proclamation of May 29, 1865, many freedmen were expelled
from land they had paid for. Changing its strategy, the Freedmen?s Bureau
then encouraged the freedmen to seek employment with former
slaveholders. Many became tenant farmers. Others ended up renting from
their former masters who took advantage of them, often denying them of
their earnings
? During the existence the Freedmen?s Bureau, it established over 1,000
schools and several black colleges.
? Throughout its entire existence, the Freedmen?s Bureau held less than twotenths of one percent of all southern lands, most of which President
Johnson?s amnesty proclamation restored to former slaveholders.
? What is going to replace it?
Early in 1866, Congress voted to renew the charter that had created the
Freedmen?s Bureau, in retaliation for the fact that Johnson had stripped the
bureau of its power. Congress also revised the charter to include special legal
courts that would override southern courts. Johnson, however, vetoed the
renewed Freedmen?s Bureau, once again using the states? rights argument that
the federal government should not deprive the states of their judicial powers.
Johnson also claimed that it was not the federal government?s responsibility to
provide special protection for blacks.
-Cotton and Freed people:
? Slaves produced things for their white masters, they mostly worked in
cotton field. Freed people resisted going back to work in cotton factories
after the war. White people in the south and north agreed that freed
people will work in cotton factories.
? Why don?t black people want to work in cotton factories?
Slaves had no constitutional rights; they could not testify in court against a white
person; they could not leave the plantation without permission. Slaves often
found themselves rented out, used as prizes in lotteries, or as wagers in card
games and horse races. Their biggest fear was being separated from family and
friends.
? Why did white people in the north and south want freed people work in
cotton fields?
-It reminded them of being slaves and they do not want that.
-The south wanted slavery mainly because they wanted to be able to have
workers but not have to pay them. This way the South could make more money
to either buy more slaves, more land, and be able to pay their taxes. This is
mainly why the Civil War started. The North didn’t like how the South didn’t have
to pay workers and the North did. The South also depended on slavery to keep
the growth of their farms, and plantations good. With out slavery the South
would have been much worse.
-Black codes:
? What are they?
Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil
War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans’
freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages
or debt.
? Why are they a problem?
many states required blacks to sign yearly labor contracts; if they refused, they
risked being arrested as vagrants and fined or forced into unpaid labor.
– 14th Amendment:
to Take reconstruction policies away from presidents, congress takes over
responsibility policies in the south.
? What is it?
The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws,
and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the
American Civil War.
? Who does it protect?
o All persons born or naturalized in the United States.
o No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law.
o states guarantee the same rights, privileges, and protections to all
citizens.
-Radical reconstruction:
? What is it?
Republicans in Congress took control of Reconstruction, this era was called
?Radical reconstruction?.
? What do they do?
The Radical Republicans believed blacks were entitled to the
same political rights and opportunities as whites. They also
believed that the Confederate leaders should be punished for
their roles in the Civil War.
? What do congress do to take control over the white house?
When the senates had more than 70% control they could just override and
take over the white house.
AMH ? 17 may
Film: reconstruction: the second civil war 1865-1877
Part 2.
– 15th Amendment
? The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or
previous condition of servitude.
? The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.
– John R Lynch
? an African-American Republican politician, writer, attorney and military
officer. Born into slavery in Louisiana, he became free in 1863 under the
Emancipation Proclamation.
? During Reconstruction, Lynch joined the Republican Party in
Mississippi. After working as assistant secretary for the Republican State
Convention, Lynch became the Justice of the Peace in Natchez County,
Mississippi. In November 1869 at the age of 22, Lynch was elected to the
Mississippi House of Representatives. Three years later, in 1872 he was
named Speaker of the House.
? Later in 1872, Lynch ran for a seat in the United States House of
Representatives. He was elected, winning more than fifty percent of the
popular vote. In Congress Lynch was known primarily for his support of a
civil rights measure that eventually became the ?Civil Rights Act of 1875?.
? During his congressional campaign in 1874, Lynch voiced concern for racist
white Democrats attacks on black Republicans in Mississippi, a prelude to
the bloody Mississippi gubernatorial campaign of 1875 where hundreds of
black and white Republicans were killed.
– ?Negro Role?
? The term by whites in the south to describe their unhappiness and
displeasure of black Americans having rights and power.
– KKK trials of 1871
? Of the original 220 Klansmen who were indicted, only five were prosecuted.
53 others pleaded guilty and the cases against the rest were postponed. The
five who went to trial were all charged with violating the Enforcement Act.
Four of the defendants, Robert Mitchell, John Mitchell, Thomas Whitesides,
and John Millar, were charged with conspiracy to prevent “male citizens of
the United States of African descent” from voting in the upcoming 1872
election.
– ?The bargain of 1877?
? The Compromise of 1877 was a purported informal, unwritten deal that
settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in
the United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the
South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era.
AMH ? 17 may
Film: reconstruction: the second civil war 1865-1877
Part 2.
– 15th Amendment
? The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or
previous condition of servitude.
? The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.
– John R Lynch
? an African-American Republican politician, writer, attorney and military
officer. Born into slavery in Louisiana, he became free in 1863 under the
Emancipation Proclamation.
? During Reconstruction, Lynch joined the Republican Party in
Mississippi. After working as assistant secretary for the Republican State
Convention, Lynch became the Justice of the Peace in Natchez County,
Mississippi. In November 1869 at the age of 22, Lynch was elected to the
Mississippi House of Representatives. Three years later, in 1872 he was
named Speaker of the House.
? Later in 1872, Lynch ran for a seat in the United States House of
Representatives. He was elected, winning more than fifty percent of the
popular vote. In Congress Lynch was known primarily for his support of a
civil rights measure that eventually became the ?Civil Rights Act of 1875?.
? During his congressional campaign in 1874, Lynch voiced concern for racist
white Democrats attacks on black Republicans in Mississippi, a prelude to
the bloody Mississippi gubernatorial campaign of 1875 where hundreds of
black and white Republicans were killed.
– ?Negro Role?
? The term by whites in the south to describe their unhappiness and
displeasure of black Americans having rights and power.
– KKK trials of 1871
? Of the original 220 Klansmen who were indicted, only five were prosecuted.
53 others pleaded guilty and the cases against the rest were postponed. The
five who went to trial were all charged with violating the Enforcement Act.
Four of the defendants, Robert Mitchell, John Mitchell, Thomas Whitesides,
and John Millar, were charged with conspiracy to prevent “male citizens of
the United States of African descent” from voting in the upcoming 1872
election.
– ?The bargain of 1877?
? The Compromise of 1877 was a purported informal, unwritten deal that
settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in
the United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the
South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era.
AMH ? 22 May
Gilded Age 1870-1890
Second industrial revolution
? Americas wealth is growing and so as the population. More natural
resources are found, the market is expanding, they were not exporting or
importing many goods as they had enough resources for themselves.
? America had enough of a budget to invest in technology and development.
? The government were highly motivated in industrial development.
? In 1880-1890 they have heavily invested in the growth of the economy by
investing in railroads, they have made a major change in 10 years.
? 1890 was the end of the gilded period
? Shift from Agricultural nation to industrial nation.
? The growth happened in most states except for the south as they are
transitioning from a slave society to a free society.
? Majority of Americans were employed as non-farming jobs, according to
the 1880 census.
? Rise of a new working class in the united states. 11 million americans
moved from the farms to the cities such as Chicago, New York. For jobs.
? 25 million immigrants come to American and flood the cities as they are
also looking for jobs.
? The rail roads have tripled and tripled to new areas in the west for market
and trading reasons.
? Thomas Edison ? Inventor, drived the pace of growth, known for the light
bulb inventor. He made the cost of electricity cheaper.
? Atlantic cable ? connects the world together, big economies have expanded
to other regions. All this stuff falls under the ?Spirit of Innovation?. New
inventions, businesses, jobs, industries, everything is new.
? Captains of industry (eg. J.P Morgan) ? Pioneers, people who are driving
growth, growing their country.
? Robber Barons ? referred to the exploitations of workers, unchecked
accumulation of wealth, monopoly. Getting wealth to themselves.
? Too many companies become bankrupt by monopolies that are dominating
the market.
? People thought that extremely wealthy people should give something back
to society. So they create libraries, Carnegie, etc. to improve society.
? Rockefeller, and his oil company owned 90% of the industry which is a
monopoly. He gave his money away to institutions, was famous for giving
his fortune to medical institutions.
? These wealthy people are viewed as either Captains of industry, or Robber
Barons, depends on how each person sees them.
? The majority of Americans during the gilded age, have no jobs, live insecure
lives, unhealthy. Millions of workers loose their jobs and some even have
their salary cut.
? 35000 people get killed yearly on jobs. There are no benefits to their
families when they die.
? Working class are very poor, they require every person in the family to
work, even children. If they do not work in factories they will be working by
scavenging the streets.
? Thorstein Veblen ? writer of ?The theory of the leisure class? ? 1899
o Offers a harsh critique, about conspicuous consumption, he means
that the wealth people spend money not because they need things,
or want things. They just spend money to make sure others people
knew how rich they were.
? Jacob Riss ? writer of ?How the other half lives? 1890
o He documents lifestyle of poor families, how 20 people can live in
one small home. He documents Home conditions, orpans, people
sleeping togeth …
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