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Ongoing Comparative Analysis of Learning Theories
Basic Assumptions
The primary assumption is that all
behaviors are learned from the
Highlights that psychology should be
seen as science since it is purely
objectively experimental.
The use of rubrics to self-evaluate the efforts
of the learners and their efforts.
It is mainly focused on observational
behavior and not emotional behavior.
Educators in this case can also use in-class
activities and homework that help in practicing
each learned concept.
Behavior is a result of stimulus-response.
Suggested Instructional and/or Behavioral
Instructional strategies that are put in place that
can be used by educators. They include
programs of reward and punishment in order to
reinforce specific behaviors.
Learning is an internal behavior which
might result into a behavior
People can learn through observing
Behavior becomes self-regulated
People set goals and work towards
achieving them people have
expectations on outcomes of behavior
Educators, in this case, tend to employ
observational learning where they can monitor
the development process of an individual.
Another strategy that is usually applied in this
case is that educators set goals that need to be
achieved by learners, and thus they form
primary elements that guide the overall
positive development of individuals. The goals
that are set direct the behavior within a given
Educators also use group and pair discussions
where there is a better understanding among
Cognitivists uses feedback to support
and develop positive mental link on a
given individual.
Looks at the learners inclination to
Educators can effectively ensure that learners
have an understanding of a better way to
integrate positive mental wellbeing. Learners,
in this case, can learn through exposure to
typical cases through a focus on guided study
Educators in can also focus on the comparison
and contrast of the available learning
Educators should be able to develop a timeline
for key events from memory.
Children tend to develop their own
knowledge in response to their own
Directly observing children is a key strategy
that educators can use in this case to
understand the development process.
Children learn many things on their
own without help from adults to other
Another important strategy that would be
considered in this case would include the use
of concrete props and visual aids where
Children tend to be intrinsically
The educators should also ensure that they
understand the different complex focus based
on the learner’s background.
The child who is developing does skip
development stages
Hands-on practice is a key aspect that can be
developed to ensure a greater focus on what
needs to be considered within a given learning
environment. This boosts the skills of learners.
Thoughts and language tend to be
increasingly interdependent
Complex mental processes usually
begin as simple social processes that
children tend to internalize
Environmental control where there is
significant focus on improving the social
environment and interaction processes.
Staging mistakes is an important learning
strategy that learners are more likely to
consider in ensuring that there is a better
understanding of individual social processes.
Visual representation of the existing issues is
an important learning strategy that can be
taken into consideration by learners to have an
improved an understanding of existing mental
Human intelligence is a key element that is
integrated into creating an improved social,
cultural learning environment.
Individuals tend to have different ways of how they perceive things. The manner in
which an individual can perceive a given aspect plays an important role in informing how they
tend to act. There are different considerations, which explain how individuals tend to behave.
Human behavior, therefore, is modeled through the developmental process in which an
individual goes through. In understanding human behavior as reflected upon within the
psychology perspective, personality plays a very critical environment where it is much easy to
understand human behavior through different perspectives (Ormrod, 2016). Being in a position
to understand how individuals behave provide a clear understanding of how it is possible to
define their behavior and their social interactions.
The different theories that have been highlighted in this matrix will provide an
understanding of a specific element where it is easier to have a better focus and understanding
under which it would be possible to have a positive environment under which it would be
possible to improve the existing understanding on major theories regarding human development
and interaction processes. The behaviorist theory focuses on creating an understanding of
important elements, which play a key role in influencing individual wellbeing. There is need to
ensure that there is a better understanding of underlying assumptions which help in improving
the environment under which behaviorism can be applied effectively. All behaviors that children
tend to exhibit are learned, and social environment plays a crucial role in improving the overall
focus and engagement under which an individual behavior can be effectively understood.
Psychology plays an important role in creating an overall focus on an individual development
process through focus on cognitive and behavioral focus. Educators tend to use different learning
strategies to ensure that there is a better focus and understanding under which learners can be
engaged. These learning strategies include programs of reward and punishment to reinforce
specific behaviors. Educators also use a rubric to self-evaluate the efforts of the learners and
their efforts in class time and homework that help in practicing learned concepts. Group and pair
discussion is also an important instructional learning strategy, which seeks to improve individual
learning focus.
The social cognitive theory provides a better focus on individual behavior response
environment, which play a key role in informing the decisions and the types interaction that
individuals tend to consider in ensuring a better understanding on their own social developing.
Learning is a process that is learned, and thus the environment plays a key role in influencing the
development process of a child. Instructional strategies that are considered in this case are aimed
at ensuring greater focus and understanding on social learning theory. These instructional
strategies include observational learning, self-control, self-confidence, and reinforcement, which
determine the level of engagement within a given environment (Reigeluth, 2013).
Please expand writing by another paragraph here relating to social cognitive theory
and cognitivism that can tie this last paragraph togethers from chapter 5- 6.
Cognitivism is focused on individual psychological well-being through assessment and
development of mental strength. There is need to understand and individual internal development
processes to conclude the most effective development environment. The cognitive
developmental theory that highlights that an individual development process is a continuous
process where there is need to ensure that a child passes through all the stages of development to
ensure that they are strong physically and emotionally. The sociocultural theory seeks to create a
greater emphasis and focus on the fact that there are crucial development concepts that are not
taught. Every process within individual development begins as a simple process and develops as
individuals grow. The key instructional strategies that can be employed in this case would
include environmental control where there is significant focus on improving the social
environment and interaction processes. Another strategy is staging mistakes, a vital learning
strategy that learners are more likely to consider in ensuring that there is better understanding of
individual social processes and visual representation of underlying.
Please expand writing another paragraph here relating to cognitive-developmental
& socioculture from chapters 9-10 that can tie this paper together.
Ormrod, J. E. (2016). Human learning. (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (2013). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their
current status. Routledge.
?e???5 Kin???0?e?e
Dec?a?ative cmd P?OCedu ?a?K710wlec?e
Exp??d Jmp??oowle?e
How Kr10wle?e Js?eoded in Long-T??m Memo?y
?ncodi?????mS Qr Pkysica??a?aCteristics
?heo7teS qf Conc?Lea?n?ng
Fac?ors Fac?at?Co71Cept Lea??g
5c?e?as a?d 5c?S
??COdi?g???s qfAc?ions
Pe?SO71a??eories ve?SL?S Rea?
E?COd??????mS q?ym?s
Fos?er?g Theory Deve?meut
??COd????mS qf Meani?gs
D???t Fo??S qfE?Oding A?Not M?t?a?
??e Cha?enge Q/ Co71C??a?ha?tge
P?OmO?g Conc??a??a?e
The OIga?at?o?qr Long???m MemoIy
Long-TZ?m Memoly aS CI H?e?aJtky
Gene?a?at?ons czbo??e Na?e Q/ Know?e
?????m Memo7y aS a Ne?wo?
Pa?a?D?s??ted P?OCeSSi71g
9·l Describe the various foms that peopleS
knowledge can take, and recognize examples
Of each form in real-WOrld situations.
9.2 Explain several possible ways in which long-
tem memory might be organized.
9.3 Describe the general nature of concepts,
SChemas?and scripts, and explain both how
9.?Explain why some personal theories
and belids persist despite a good deal of
COntradictory information and evidence, and
identify instructional strategies that can help
bring about conceptual change.
9.6 Describe the nature ofexpertise and how it
Can eVOIve with experience and instruction;
they might be leamed and how they can
also explain how the idea that Less is moIe
affect future leammg and memory
Can be useful in promoting both conceptual
Give examples of personal theohes and
Change and the development of expertise.
WOrldviews, and deschbe environmental
COnditions that can give hse to them.
ake a few minutes to answer the following questions:
l. What did you do yesterday?
2. In what kind ofhouse or apartment did you live when you were 9 years old?
3. What is a r10u71?
4. How are rote leammg and meanmg?Ieaming diiferent?
5. WhatS the best mode of [ransportation around the town or ci?y in which you Iive?
?RTFOUR CognitiveViewsofLeaming
6. What prominent individuals would be good choices for leading your country in the
next two or three decades?
7. How do you ride a bicycle?
8. When buying things at the supemarket, how do you decide which checkout line to
9. What are some reasons why people own horses?
10· Why do many people pre?grass rather than gravel in front of their houses?
I,m guessing tha=he knowledge you have stored in your long-tem memOry WOuld enable
you to respond easily to most or all of these questions. Some of what you know relates to
your persona1 1ife experiences (see Questions l and 2)· but much more ofit is general knowl-
edge about the world· You,ve acquired some of your knowledge from teachers or textbooks
(see Questions 3 and 4), but you?ve probably picked up a vast amount on your own OVer
the years· Some of your ?knowledge,, isn,t necessarily fact but instead reflects your personal
beliefs and preferences (see Questions 5 and 6)· Furthemore?yOu know how to do a great
many things (see Questions 7 and 8)· And you?ve pulled some ofwhat you know and believe
into more general understandings ofwhy the world is the way it is (see Questions 9 and lO)·
In their theories of the nature of human knowledge, PSyChoIogists have gone in many directions, and it would be virtually impossible to roll all their ideas into one tight little package. But
we can distinguish among different kinds of knowledge· SPeCulate on the possible foms in which
knowledge might be encoded, and examine various ways in which long-?em memOry mi?be
organized-all of which we,ll do in this chapter. W?ll also consider how people?nowledge
might undergo revision over time-a PrOCeSS knoun as conceptuaI change-and look at how
people may gradually gain expertise in a particular field or discipline.
In the preceding two chapters· We?ve occasiona11y touched on two general distinctions regarding
the multifaceted nature of knowledge: declarative versus procedural knowledge?and explicit
versus implicit knowledge. Winow Iook at these distinctions in more detail·
Decla?ative and ProceduraI Know?edge
As?st mentioned in Chapter 7, declarative knowledge concems the nature of how things
are, Were, Or Will be. Such knowledge enables you to interpret what you see and hear around you?
recogmze important people and places in your life?and recall past events. Many theorists believe
that dedarative knowledge takes at leas=wo distinct foms: ePisodic memory-OneS memory
of persona1 1ife experiences?and semantic memory-OneS general knowledge ?hatS relatively
independent of spec?c experiences. These two foms of de?arative knowledge are different
in several important ways (Thlving· 1983)· For instance?We ?emembe? eVentS We?ve personally
experienced (episodic) bu? how things abou? the world (semantic)· W can often recall when a
lwhen theorists talk about memory for events important in oneS own life?they ohen use the tem c?OZ?tO-
g?ap?ca?memo?y (e.g., Bemtsen & Rubin, 2012)·
The Nature of Knowledge
Particular event happened to us (episodic) but usually ca?r10?reCall when we acquired spec?c
facts about the world (semantic). W?e most likely to remember a certain life event when we,re
in the same place in which it happened, yet We Can uSually recall general infomation about the
WOrld regardless of where we are at the time. Our semantic memories typically stay with us Ionger than our episodic memories; for instance, We?re far more likely to recall typical menu items
at a particular fas?food restaurant (semantic) than to remember what we actually ordered at that
restaurant a year ago last Thesday (episodic)· And to some degree, ePisodic and semantic memory
appear to invoIve different areas of the brain (Buckner & Petersen, 1996; Davachi & Dobbins,
2008; Prince, TSukiura, & Cabeza, 2007).
In contras=o declarative knowledge?PrOCedural knowledge invoIves knowing how to
do things. For example, yOu PrObably know how to ride a bicycle, WraP a gift, and add the
numbers 57 and 94. Tb do such things success?Iy, yOu muSt SOmetimes adapt your actions
to changing conditions; for instance, When riding a bike?yOu muSt be able to tum left or right
ifyou see an object directly in your path, and you must be able to stop when you encounter a
barrier or reach your destination· Accordingly, aS yOu?ll leam in the discussion of p?Oduc?io?S
a bit later, PrOCedural knowledge includes infomation about how to respond under different
Circumstances; that is, it includes conditional knowledge.
Episodic· Semantic, and procedural foms of knowledge are intercomected in long-tem
memory For instance, When I think about what dogs are like (semantic knowledge), I might be
reminded of how our fomer dog Ama once ate the leftover chocolate cake we brought home
after TinaS birthday party at McDonaldS (episodic knowledge), and I might be reminded, tOO, Of
how I used to put miniature snow boots on another fomer family dog, Tbbey; SO that the boots
WOuld stay on in deep snow (procedural knowledge)· How was Anna able to get the chocolate
Cake? Why did Tbbey need boots to walk in the snow? And why did putting on the boots in
One Way WOrk better than putting them on in a different way? We pull some of our dedarative
and procedural knowledge together in?o conceptual knowledge that reflects our understand-
ing of why certain events happened, Why certain things are the way they are, and why certain
PrOCedures are e?ective but others are not O. R. Anderson, 2005; L W Anderson et al., 2001;
Spunt, Falk, & Liebeman, 2010)· Don?t let the tem co71CeptL?a=ool you, because I?m not talking
about simple concepts here. Rather, COnCePtual knowledge invoIves the i71??attOn Of numerous
COnCePtS Plus other declarative knowledge-and sometimes procedural knowledge as wel?into
general understandings of certain situations or phenomena.
Expiicit and lmplicit Knowledge
How do you grow flowers from a packet of flower seeds? I,m guessing that you can easily answer
this question, eXPlaining that you need to plan=he seeds in soil, make sure they have plenty of
light?and water them regularly But how do you keep your balance when you ride a bicycle? How
do you move your legs when you skip? What things do you do to fom a grammatically correct
SentenCe in your speech or writing? Such questions are more d?cult to answer? Even though
these activities might be second nature to you?yOu Can,t really put your finger on exac?Iy what
you do in each case.
Many theorists make a distinction between explicit knowledge-knowledge that we can
easily recall and explain-and implicit knowledge-knowledge that we can,t consciously reCall or explain bu=hat nevertheless a?ects our behavior. Sometimes people have no conscious
fART FOUR Cognitive Views of Leaming
awareness that they,ve leamed something even though this knowledge clearly influences their
actions. For example, this is the case for people who have suffered certain types of brain damage
(Bachevalier, Malkova, & Beauregard, 1996; Gabrieli, Keane, Zarella, & Poldrack, 1997)· ThereS
also evidence that we acquire some implicit knowledge when we leam either a first or second
language? We can produce grammatica11y correct sentences even though we can?t explain how we
do it (Chomsky 2006; N. C. E11is, 1994).2
Sometimes knowledge is su?ciently dim that it a?ects us only in subtle ways. For instance,
when 9-year-Olds Iook at pictures of dassmates from their preschool days, they may have no conscious recollection of some of them, but their physioIoglCal responses suggest that they do recognize
these children at some level (Newcombe & Fox, 1994). As another example, When college students
are asked simple left-ri?ohentation questions about we11-known cultural images (e.g·, When
students in England are asked whether Queen Elizabeth fdees left or ri?t on a 10-PenCe COin, and
when students in Japan are asked whether the cartoon character Hello Kitty wears her bow on the
left or right side of her head), they can rarely tell you. However, When forced to choose between the
correct orientation and its mirror image, they guess correctly about 65% to 80% of the time-hardly
stellar perfomances, but certainly better than chance (Kelly, Burton, Kato, & …
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