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6
Analyzing
Consumer Markets
Marketing Management, 13th ed
Chapter Questions
• How do consumer characteristics
influence buying behavior?
• What major psychological processes
influence consumer responses to the
marketing program?
• How do consumers make purchasing
decisions?
• How do marketers analyze consumer
decision making?
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-2
Crest Used Mobile Phones to Engage
Consumers in Its Irresistibility
Campaign
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-3
What Influences
Consumer Behavior?
Cultural Factors
Social Factors
Personal Factors
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-4
What is Culture?
Culture is the fundamental determinant
of a person’s wants and behaviors
acquired through socialization
processes with family and other key
institutions.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-5
Subcultures
Nationalities
Religions
Racial groups
Geographic regions
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-6
David’s Bridal Targets the Latino SubCulture with its Collection of
Quinceañera Dresses
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-7
Fast Facts About
American Culture
• The average American:
•
•
•
•
chews 300 sticks of gum a year
goes to the movies 9 times a year
takes 4 trips per year
attends a sporting event 7 times each year
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-8
Social Classes
Upper uppers
Lower uppers
Upper middles
Middle class
Working class
Upper lowers
Lower lowers
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-9
Characteristics of Social Classes
• Within a class, people tend to behave
alike
• Social class conveys perceptions of
inferior or superior position
• Class may be indicated by a cluster of
variables (occupation, income, wealth)
• Class designation is mobile over time
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-10
Social Factors
Reference
groups
Family
Social
roles
Statuses
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6-11
Reference Groups
Membership groups
Primary groups
Secondary groups
Aspirational groups
Dissociative groups
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-12
Family Distinctions
Affecting Buying Decisions
• Family of Orientation
• Family of Procreation
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-13
Radio Shack Targets Women with
Female Store Managers
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-14
Roles and Status
What degree of status is
associated with various
occupational roles?
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-15
Personal Factors
Age
Selfconcept
Life cycle
stage
Lifestyle
Occupation
Values
Wealth
Personality
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-16
The Family Life Cycle
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6-17
Brand Personality
Sincerity
Excitement
Competence
Sophistication
Ruggedness
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-18
Lifestyle Influences
Multi-tasking
Time-starved
Money-constrained
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-19
Table 6.2 LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health
and Sustainability) Market Segments
•
•
•
•
•
Sustainable Economy
Healthy Lifestyles
Ecological Lifestyles
Alternative Health Care
Personal Development
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-20
Figure 6.1
Model of Consumer Behavior
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-21
Key Psychological Processes
Motivation
Perception
Learning
Memory
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6-22
Motivation
Freud’s
Theory
Maslow’s
Hierarchy
of Needs
Herzberg’s
Two-Factor
Theory
Behavior
is guided by
subconscious
motivations
Behavior
is driven by
the lowest,
unmet need
Behavior is
guided by
motivating
and hygiene
factors
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-23
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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6-24
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-25
Perception
Selective Attention
Selective Retention
Selective Distortion
Subliminal Perception
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6-26
Figure 6.3 State Farm Mental Map
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6-27
Bahlsen Uses Crunchy Sounds to
Encode Brand Associations
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-28
Figure 6.4 Consumer Buying Process
Problem Recognition
Information Search
Evaluation
Purchase Decision
Postpurchase
Behavior
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-29
Problem Recognition
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6-30
Sources of Information
Personal
Commercial
Public
Experiential
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6-31
Figure 6.5 Successive Sets Involved in
Consumer Decision Making
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6-32
Table 6.4 A Consumer’s Evaluation of
Brand Beliefs About Laptops
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6-33
Figure 6.6 Stages between Evaluation
of Alternatives and Purchase
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6-34
Non-Compensatory Models of Choice
• Conjunctive
• Lexicographic
• Elimination-by-aspects
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6-35
Perceived Risk
Functional
Physical
Financial
Social
Psychological
Time
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-36
Figure 6.7 How Customers Use and
Dispose of Products
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-37
Other Theories of
Consumer Decision Making
Involvement
• Elaboration
Likelihood Model
• Low-involvement
marketing
strategies
• Variety-seeking
buying behavior
Decision Heuristics
• Availability
• Representativeness
• Anchoring and
adjustment
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-38
Mental Accounting
• Consumers tend to…
•
•
•
•
Segregate gains
Integrate losses
Integrate smaller losses with larger gains
Segregate small gains from large losses
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-39
Marketing Debate
? Is target marketing ever bad?
Take a position:
1. Targeting minorities is exploitive.
or
2. Targeting minorities is a sound
business practice.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-40
Marketing Discussion
? Do you have rules you employ in
spending money?
? Do you follow Thaler’s four principles
in reacting to gains and losses?
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
6-41

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